page discusses the main so called "Taboo Drug Plants". Discussion is
mainly kept to the cultivation, chemical constituents and pharmacological
of these "drug" plants. The cultivation of these plants in most
countries is forbidden except by some governments or government licensed
mostly as use as the starting materials for synthetic pharmaceutical
drugs; therefore this page is for information purposes only.
If you wish to buy real, high quality
Opium Poppy Seeds visit the Ethno botanical
Despite negative stigmas towards opium in the United States, the use of opium
derived products in the treatment of chronic pain has been reestablished. As
seen in case studies today, the use of opiates in medicine, namely morphine, is
seen as a safe and effective form of treatment for pain even if given over
longer periods of time in controlled doses. Morphine generally doesn’t impair
cognitive function when given in moderate, stable doses, and now is shown to
help with neuropathic pain (pain of nerves or neurological diseases), on which
it was previously thought to have no effect.
of opium poppies for food, anesthesia, and ritual purposes dates back to at
least the Neolithic Age (new stone age). The Sumerian, Assyrian, Egyptian,
Indian, Minoan, Greek, Roman, Persian and Arab Empires all made widespread use
of opium, which was the most potent form of pain relief then available, allowing
ancient surgeons to perform prolonged surgical procedures. Anthropologists have
speculated ancient priests may have used the drug as a proof of healing power.
In Egypt, the use of opium was generally restricted to priests, magicians, and
warriors, its invention is credited to Thoth, and it was said to have been given
by Isis to Ra as treatment for a headache.
figure of the Minoan "goddess of the narcotics", wearing a crown of
three opium poppies, circa 1300 BCE, was recovered from the Sanctuary of Gazi,
Crete, together with a simple smoking apparatus. The Greek gods Hypnos (Sleep),
Nyx (Night), and Thanatos (Death) were depicted wreathed in poppies or holding
them. Poppies also frequently adorned statues of Apollo, Asklepios, Pluto,
Demeter, Aphrodite, Kybele and Isis, symbolizing nocturnal oblivion.
Opium (poppy tears, lachryma papaveris) is the dried latex obtained from the
opium poppy (Papaver somniferum). Opium contains approximately 12% morphine, an
alkaloid, which is frequently processed chemically to produce heroin for the
illegal drug trade. The latex also includes codeine and non-narcotic alkaloids
such as papaverine, thebaine and noscapine. The traditional method of obtaining
the latex is to scratch ("score") the immature seed pods (fruits) by
hand; the latex leaks out and dries to a sticky yellowish residue that is later
scraped off. The modern method is to harvest and process mature plants by
The production of opium itself has not changed since ancient times. Through
selective breeding of the Papaver somniferum plant, the content of the
phenanthrene alkaloids morphine, codeine, and to a lesser extent thebaine, has
been greatly increased. In modern times, much of the thebaine, which often
serves as the raw material for the synthesis for hydrocodone, hydromorphone, and
other semi-synthetic opiates, originates from extracting Papaver orientale or
Globally, opium has gradually been superseded by a variety of purified,
semi-synthetic, and synthetic opioids with progressively stronger effects, and
by other general anesthetics. This process began in 1804, when Friedrich Wilhelm
Adam Sertürner first isolated morphine from the opium poppy. The process
continued until 1817, when Sertürner published the isolation of pure morphine
from opium after at least thirteen years of research and a nearly disastrous
trial on himself and three boys. The great advantage of purified morphine was
that a patient could be treated with a known dose—whereas with raw plant
material, as Gabriel Fallopius once lamented, "if soporifics are weak they
do not help; if they are strong they are exceedingly dangerous." Morphine
was the first pharmaceutical isolated from a natural product, and this success
encouraged the isolation of other alkaloids: by 1820, isolations of narcotine,
strychnine, veratrine, colchicine, caffeine, and quinine were reported. Morphine
sales began in 1827, by Heinrich Emanuel Merck of Darmstadt, and helped him
expand his family pharmacy into the Merck KGaA pharmaceutical company. Codeine
was isolated in 1832 by Pierre Jean Robiquet.
The use of diethyl ether and chloroform for general anesthesia began in 1846–1847,
and rapidly displaced the use of opiates and tropane alkaloids from Solanaceae
due to their relative safety.
the first semi-synthetic opiate, was first synthesized in 1874, but was not
pursued until its rediscovery in 1897 by Felix Hoffmann at the Bayer
pharmaceutical company in Elberfeld, Germany. From 1898 to 1910 heroin was
marketed as a non-addictive morphine substitute and cough medicine for children.
By 1902, sales made up 5% of the company's profits, and "heroinism"
had attracted media attention. Oxycodone, a thebaine derivative similar to
codeine, was introduced by Bayer in 1916 and promoted as a less-addictive
analgesic. Preparations of the drug such as Percocet and OxyContin remain
popular to this day.
A range of synthetic opioids such as methadone (1937), pethidine (1939),
fentanyl (late 1950s), and derivatives thereof have been introduced, and each is
preferred for certain specialized applications. Nonetheless, morphine remains
the drug of choice for American combat medics, who carry packs of syrettes
containing 16 milligrams each for use on severely wounded soldiers. No drug has
been found that can match the painkilling effect of opioids without also
duplicating much of their addictive potential.
Modern production and usage
In South American countries, opium poppies (Papaver somniferum) are technically
illegal, but nonetheless appear in some nurseries as ornamentals. They are
popular and attractive garden plants, whose flowers vary greatly in color, size
and form. A modest amount of domestic cultivation in private gardens is not
usually subject to legal controls. In part, this tolerance reflects variation in
addictive potency: a cultivar for opium production, Papaver somniferum L. elite,
contains 92% morphine, codeine, and thebaine in its latex alkaloids, whereas the
condiment cultivar "Marianne" has only one-fifth this total, with the
remaining alkaloids made up mostly of narcotoline and noscapine.
Seed capsules can be dried and used for decorations, but they also contain
morphine, codeine, and other alkaloids. These pods can be boiled in water to
produce a bitter tea that induces a long-lasting intoxication (See Poppy tea).
If allowed to mature, poppy pods (poppy straw) can be crushed and used to
produce lower quantities of morphinans. In poppies subjected to mutagenesis and
selection on a mass scale, researchers have been able to use poppy straw to
obtain large quantities of oripavine, a precursor to opioids and antagonists
such as naltrexone.
Poppy seeds are a common and flavorsome topping for breads and cakes. One gram
of poppy seeds contains up to 33 micrograms of morphine and 14 micrograms of
codeine, and the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration
formerly mandated that all drug screening laboratories use a standard cutoff of
300 nanograms per milliliter in urine samples. A single poppy seed roll (0.76
grams of seeds) usually did not produce a positive drug test, but a positive
result was observed from eating two rolls. A slice of poppy seed cake containing
nearly five grams of seeds per slice produced positive results for 24 hours.
Such results are viewed as false positive indications of drug abuse and were the
basis of a legal defense. On November 30, 1998, the standard cutoff was
increased to 2000 nanograms (two micrograms) per milliliter.During the Communist
era in Eastern Europe, poppy stalks sold in bundles by farmers were processed by
users with household chemicals to make kompot ("Polish heroin"), and
poppy seeds were used to produce koknar, an opiate.
When grown for opium production, the skin of the ripening pods of these poppies
is scored by a sharp blade at a time carefully chosen so that rain, wind, and
dew cannot spoil the exudation of white, milky latex, usually in the afternoon.
Incisions are made while the pods are still raw, with no more than a slight
yellow tint, and must be shallow to avoid penetrating hollow inner chambers or
loculi while cutting into the lactiferous vessels. In Indian Subcontinent,
Afghanistan, Central Asia and Iran, the special tool used to make the incisions
is called a nushtar or "nishtar" (from Persian, meaning a lancet) and
carries three or four blades three millimeters apart, which are scored upward
along the pod. Incisions are made three or four times at intervals of two to
three days, and each time the "poppy tears," which dry to a sticky
brown resin, are collected the following morning. One acre harvested in this way
can produce three to five kilograms of raw opium. In the Soviet Union, pods were
typically scored horizontally, and opium was collected three times, or else one
or two collections were followed by isolation of opiates from the ripe capsules.
Oil poppies, an alternative strain of P. somniferum, were also used for
production of opiates from their capsules and stem
Raw opium may be sold to a merchant or broker on the black market, but it
usually does not travel far from the field before it is refined into morphine
base, because pungent, jelly-like raw opium is bulkier and harder to smuggle.
Crude laboratories in the field are capable of refining opium into morphine base
by a simple acid-base extraction. A sticky, brown paste, morphine base is
pressed into bricks and sun-dried, and can either be smoked, prepared into other
forms or processed into heroin
Other methods of preparation (besides smoking), include processing into regular
opium tincture (tinctura opii), laudanum, paregoric (tinctura opii camphorata),
herbal wine (e.g. vinum opii), opium powder (pulvis opii), opium sirup (sirupus
opii) and opium extract (extractum opii) Vinum opii is made by combining sugar,
white wine, cinnamon, and cloves. Opium syrup is made by combining 997.5 part
sugar syrup with 2.5 parts opium extract. Opium extract (extractum opii) finally
can be made by macerating raw opium with water. To make opium extract, 20 parts
water are combined with 1 part raw opium which has been boiled for 5 minutes
(the latter to ease mixing).
Heroin is widely preferred because of increased potency. One study in
postaddicts found heroin to be approximately 2.2 times more potent than morphine
by weight with a similar duration; at these relative quantities, they could
distinguish the drugs subjectively but had no preference.Heroin was also found
to be twice as potent as morphine in surgical anesthesia. Morphine is converted
into heroin by a simple chemical reaction with acetic anhydride, followed by a
varying degree of purification. Especially in Mexican production, opium may be
converted directly to "black tar heroin" in a simplified procedure.
This form predominates in the U.S. west of the Mississippi. Relative to other
preparations of heroin, it has been associated with a dramatically decreased
rate of HIV transmission among intravenous drug users (4% in Los Angeles vs. 40%
in New York) due to technical requirements of injection, although it is also
associated with greater risk of venous sclerosis and necrotizing fasciitis.
Chemical and physiological properties
Opium contains two main groups of alkaloids. Phenanthrenes such as morphine,
codeine, and thebaine are the main narcotic constituents. Isoquinolines such as
papaverine and noscapine have no significant central nervous system effects, and
are not regulated under the Controlled Substances Act. Morphine is the most
prevalent and important alkaloid in opium, consisting of 10%–16% of the total,
and is responsible for most of its harmful effects such as lung edema,
respiratory difficulties, coma, or cardiac or respiratory collapse. Morphine
binds to and activates mu opioid receptor in the brain, spinal cord, stomach and
intestine. Regular use can lead to drug tolerance or physical dependence.
Chronic opium addicts in 1906 China or modern-day Iran[ consume an average of
eight grams of opium daily.
Both analgesia and drug addiction are functions of the mu opioid receptor, the
class of opioid receptor first identified as responsive to morphine. Tolerance
is associated with the superactivation of the receptor, which may be affected by
the degree of endocytosis caused by the opioid administered, and leads to a
superactivation of cyclic AMP signaling. Long-term use of morphine in palliative
care and management of chronic pain cannot be managed without the possible
development of drug tolerance or physical dependence. Many techniques of drug
treatment exist, including pharmacologically based treatments with naltrexone,
methadone, or ibogaine.
Coca may refer to any of the four cultivated plants which belong to the family
Erythroxylaceae, native to western South America. The plant is an important cash
crop in Bolivia and Peru. It also plays a significant role in many traditional
Andean cultures as well as the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta (see the Traditional
uses). Coca is best known throughout the world for its psychoactive alkaloid,
cocaine. However, the alkaloid content of coca leaves is low: between .25% and
.77%, and production of cocaine from coca requires complex chemical processes.
This means that chewing the leaves or drinking coca tea does not produce the
high (euphoria, megalomania) people experience with cocaine.
There are two species of cultivated coca, each with two varieties:
• Erythroxylum coca
• Erythroxylum coca var. coca (Bolivian or Huanuco Coca) - well adapted to the
eastern Andes of Peru and Bolivia, an area of humid, tropical, mountainous
• Erythroxylum coca var. ipadu (Amazonian Coca) - cultivated in the lowland
Amazon Basin in Peru and Colombia.
• Erythroxylum novogranatense
• Erythroxylum novogranatense var. novogranatense (Colombian Coca) - a
highland variety that is utilized in lowland areas. It is cultivated in drier
regions found in Colombia. However, E. novogranatense is very adaptable to
varying ecological conditions. The leaves have parallel lines on either side of
the central vein.
• Erythroxylum novogranatense var. truxillense (Trujillo Coca) - grown
primarily in Peru and Colombia. the leaves of E. novogranatense var. truxillense
does not have parallel lines on either side of the central vein like all other
Also known as supercoca or la millionaria, Boliviana negra is a relatively new
form of coca that is resistant to herbicide Roundup, or the isopropylamine salt
of glyphosate. Since Roundup is a key ingredient in the multibillion-dollar
aerial coca eradication campaign undertaken by the government of Colombia with
U.S. financial and military backing known as Plan Colombia, increasing
popularity of Boliviana negra amongst growers could have serious repercussions'
for the War on Drugs
The pharmacologically active ingredient of coca is the coca alkaloid, which is
found in the amount of about 0.3 to 1.5%, averaging 0.8%, in fresh leaves.
Besides coca, the coca leaf contains a number of other alkaloids, including
methylecgonine cinnamate,benzoylecgonine, truxilline, hydroxytropacocaine,
tropacocaine, ecgonine, cuscohygrine, dihydrocuscohygrine, nicotine and hygrine.
When chewed, coca acts as a mild stimulant and suppresses hunger, thirst, pain,
and fatigue. In Bolivia bags of coca leaves are sold in local markets and by
street vendors. The activity of chewing coca is called mambear, chacchar or
acullicar, borrowed from Quechua,coquear (northern Argentina), or in Bolivia,
picchar, derived from the Aymara language. The Spanish masticar is also
frequently used, along with the slang term "bolear," derived from the
word "bola" or ball of coca pouched in the cheek while chewing.
Typical coca consumption is about two ounces per day, and contemporary methods
are believed to be unchanged from ancient times. Coca is kept in a woven pouch (chuspa
or huallqui). A few leaves are chosen to form a quid (acullico) held between the
mouth and gums. Doing so may cause a tingling and numbing sensation in their
mouths. (The formerly used dental anaesthetic Novocaine has a similar effect.)
Chewing coca leaves is most common in indigenous communities across the central
Andean region, particularly in places like the highlands of Colombia, Bolivia
and Peru, where the cultivation and consumption of coca is as much a part of the
national culture similar to chicha, like wine is to France or beer is to
Germany. It also serves as a powerful symbol of indigenous cultural and
religious identity, amongst a diversity of indigenous nations throughout South
Coca is still chewed in the traditional way, with a tiny quantity of ilucta (a
preparation of the ashes of the quinoa plant) added to the coca leaves; it
softens their astringent flavor and activates the alkaloids. Other names for
this basifying substance are llipta in Peru and the Spanish word lejía, lye in
English. The consumer carefully uses a wooden stick (formerly often a spatula of
precious metal) to transfer an alkaline component into the quid without touching
his flesh with the corrosive substance. The alkali component, usually kept in a
gourd (ishcupuro or poporo), can be made by burning limestone to form unslaked
quicklime, burning quinoa stalks, or the bark from certain trees, and may be
called ilipta, tocra or mambe depending on its composition. Many of these
materials are salty in flavor, but there are variations. The most common base in
the La Paz area of Bolivia is a product known as lejía dulce (sweet lye), which
is made from quinoa ashes mixed with aniseed and cane sugar, forming a soft
black putty with a sweet and pleasing flavor. In some places, baking soda is
used under the name bico.
In the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, on the Caribbean Coast of Colombia, coca is
consumed by the Kogi, Arhuaco and Wiwa by using a special device called poporo.
Although coca leaf chewing is common only among the indigenous populations, the
consumption of coca tea (Mate de coca) is common among all sectors of society in
the Andean countries, especially due to their high elevations from sea level,
and is widely held to be beneficial to health, mood, and energy. Coca leaf is
sold packaged into teabags in most grocery stores in the region, and
establishments that cater to tourists generally feature coca tea.
In the Andes commercially manufactured coca teas, granola bars, cookies, hard
candies, etc. are available in most stores and supermarkets, including upscale
Coca is used industrially in the cosmetics and food industries. A de-cocainized
extract of coca leaf is one of the flavoring ingredients in Coca-Cola. Before
the criminalization of cocaine, however, the extract was not de-cocainized.
Therefore, Coca-Cola's original formula did include cocaine.
Coca tea is produced industrially from coca leaves in South America by a number
of companies, including Enaco S.A. (National Company of the Coca) a government
enterprise in Peru. Coca leaves are also found in a brand of herbal liqueur
called "Agwa de Bolivia" (grown in Bolivia and de-cocainized in
Amsterdam), and a natural flavoring ingredient in Red Bull Cola, that was
launched in March 2008.
you wish to buy real, high quality Dutch Cannabis Seeds or the best in grow
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Cannabis (/ˈkænəbɪs/; Cán-na-bis) is a genus of flowering
plants that includes three putative varieties, Cannabis sativa, Cannabis indica,
and Cannabis ruderalis. These three taxa are indigenous to Central Asia, and
South Asia. Cannabis has long been used for fibre (hemp), for seed and seed
oils, for medicinal purposes, and as a recreational drug. Industrial hemp
products are made from Cannabis plants selected to produce an abundance of
fiber. To satisfy the UN Narcotics Convention, some Cannabis strains have been
bred to produce minimal levels of THC, the principal psychoactive constituent
responsible for the "high" associated with marijuana. Marijuana
consists of the dried flowers of Cannabis plants selectively bred to produce
high levels of THC and other psychoactive cannabinoids. Various extracts
including hashish and hash oil are also produced from the plant.
Cannabis is an annual, dioecious, flowering herb. The leaves are palmately
compound or digitate, with serrate leaflets. The first pair of leaves usually
have a single leaflet, the number gradually increasing up to a maximum of about
thirteen leaflets per leaf (usually seven or nine), depending on variety and
growing conditions. At the top of a flowering plant, this number again
diminishes to a single leaflet per leaf. The lower leaf pairs usually occur in
an opposite leaf arrangement and the upper leaf pairs in an alternate
arrangement on the main stem of a mature plant.
The leaves have a peculiar and diagnostic venation pattern that enables persons
poorly familiar with the plant to distinguish a Cannabis leaf from unrelated
species that have confusingly similar leaves (see illustration). As is common in
serrated leaves, each serration has a central vein extending to its tip.
However, the serration vein originates from lower down the central vein of the
leaflet, typically opposite to the position of, not the first notch down, but
the next notch. This means that on its way from the midrib of the leaflet to the
point of the serration, the vein serving the tip of the serration passes close
by the intervening notch. Sometimes the vein will actually pass tangent to the
notch, but often it will pass by at a small distance, and when that happens a
spur vein (occasionally a pair of such spur veins) branches off and joins the
leaf margin at the deepest point of the notch. This venation pattern varies
slightly among varieties, but in general it enables one to tell Cannabis leaves
from superficially similar leaves without difficulty and without special
equipment. Tiny samples of Cannabis plants also can be identified with precision
by microscopic examination of leaf cells and similar features, but that requires
special expertise and equipment."
Cannabis normally has imperfect flowers, with staminate "male" and
pistillate "female" flowers occurring on separate plants. It is not
unusual, however, for individual plants to bear both male and female flowers.
Although monoecious plants are often referred to as "hermaphrodites,"
true hermaphrodites (which are less common) bear staminate and pistillate
structures on individual flowers, whereas monoecious plants bear male and female
flowers at different locations on the same plant. Male flowers are normally
borne on loose panicles, and female flowers are borne on racemes." At a
very early period the Chinese recognized the Cannabis plant as dioecious,"
and the (ca. 3rd century BCE) Erya dictionary defined xi 枲 "male
Cannabis" and fu 莩 (or ju 苴)
All known strains of Cannabis are wind-pollinated and the fruit is an achene.
Most strains of Cannabis are short day plants, with the possible exception of C.
sativa subsp. sativa var. spontanea (= C. ruderalis), which is commonly
described as "auto-flowering" and may be day-neutral.
Cannabinoids, terpenoids, and other compounds are secreted by glandular
trichomes that occur most abundantly on the floral calyxes and bracts of female
plants. As a drug it usually comes in the form of dried flower buds
(marijuana), resin (hashish), or various extracts collectively known as hashish
oil. In the early 20th century, it became illegal in most of the world to
cultivate or possess Cannabis for sale or personal use.
Cannabis plants produce a unique family of terpeno-phenolic compounds called
cannabinoids, which produce the "high" one experiences from consuming
marijuana. There are 483 identifiable chemical constituents known to exist in
the cannabis plant, and at least 85 different cannabinoids have been isolated
from the plant. The two cannabinoids usually produced in greatest abundance are
cannabidiol (CBD) and/or Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), but it is generally
believed that only THC is psychoactive (this maybe disputed). Since the early
1970s, Cannabis plants have been categorized by their chemical phenotype or
"chemotype," based on the overall amount of THC produced, and on the
ratio of THC to CBD. Although overall cannabinoid production is influenced by
environmental factors, the THC/CBD ratio is genetically determined and remains
fixed throughout the life of a plant. [Non-drug plants produce relatively low
levels of THC and high levels of CBD, while drug plants produce high levels of
THC and low levels of CBD. When plants of these two chemotypes cross-pollinate,
the plants in the first filial (F1) generation have an intermediate chemotype
and produce similar amounts of CBD and THC. Female plants of this chemotype may
produce enough THC to be utilized for drug production.
Cannabis indica may have a CBD:THC ratio 4–5 times that of Cannabis sativa.
Cannabis strains with relatively high CBD:THC ratios are less likely to induce
anxiety than vice versa. This may be due to CBD's antagonistic effects at the
cannabinoid receptors, compared to THC's partial agonist effect. CBD is also a
5-HT1A receptor agonist, which may also contribute to an anxiolytic effect. This
likely means the high concentrations of CBD found in Cannabis indica mitigate
the anxiogenic effect of THC significantly. The effects of sativa are well known
for its cerebral high, hence used daytime as medical cannabis, while indica are
well known for its sedative effects and preferred night time as medical
Relative size of varieties of Cannabis
In 1924, Russian botanist D.E. Janichevsky concluded that ruderal Cannabis in
central Russia is either a variety of C. sativa or a separate species, and
proposed C. sativa L. var. ruderalis Janisch. and Cannabis ruderalis Janisch. as
alternative names. In 1929, renowned plant explorer Nikolai Vavilov assigned
wild or feral populations of Cannabis in Afghanistan to C. indica Lam. var.
kafiristanica Vav., and ruderal populations in Europe to C. sativa L. var.
spontanea Vav. In 1940, Russian botanists Serebriakova and Sizov proposed a
complex classification in which they also recognized C. sativa and C. indica as
separate species. Within C. sativa they recognized two subspecies: C. sativa L.
subsp. culta Serebr. (consisting of cultivated plants), and C. sativa L. subsp.
spontanea (Vav.) Serebr. (consisting of wild or feral plants). Serebriakova and
Sizov split the two C. sativa subspecies into 13 varieties, including four
distinct groups within subspecies culta. However, they did not divide C. indica
into subspecies or varieties. This excessive splitting of C. sativa proved too
unwieldy, and never gained many adherents.
In the 1970s, the taxonomic classification of Cannabis took on added
significance in North America. Laws prohibiting Cannabis in the United States
and Canada specifically named products of C. sativa as prohibited materials.
Enterprising attorneys for the defense in a few drug busts argued that the
seized Cannabis material may not have been C. sativa, and was therefore not
prohibited by law. Attorneys on both sides recruited botanists to provide expert
testimony. Among those testifying for the prosecution was Dr. Ernest Small,
while Dr. Richard E. Schultes and others testified for the defense. The
botanists engaged in heated debate (outside of court), and both camps impugned
the other's integrity. The defense attorneys were not often successful in
winning their case, because the intent of the law was clear.
In 1976, Canadian botanist Ernest Small and American taxonomist Arthur Cronquist
published a taxonomic revision that recognizes a single species of Cannabis with
two subspecies: C. sativa L. subsp. sativa, and C. sativa L. subsp. indica
(Lam.) Small & Cronq. The authors hypothesized that the two subspecies
diverged primarily as a result of human selection; C. sativa subsp. sativa was
presumably selected for traits that enhance fiber or seed production, whereas C.
sativa subsp. indica was primarily selected for drug production. Within these
two subspecies, Small and Cronquist described C. sativa L. subsp. sativa var.
spontanea Vav. as a wild or escaped variety of low-intoxicant Cannabis, and C.
sativa subsp. indica var. kafiristanica (Vav.) Small & Cronq. as a wild or
escaped variety of the high-intoxicant type. This classification was based on
several factors including interfertility, chromosome uniformity, chemotype, and
numerical analysis of phenotypic characters.
Professors William Emboden, Loran Anderson, and Harvard botanist Richard E.
Schultes and coworkers also conducted taxonomic studies of Cannabis in the
1970s, and concluded that stable morphological differences exist that support
recognition of at least three species, C. sativa, C. indica, and C. ruderalis.
For Schultes, this was a reversal of his previous interpretation that Cannabis
is monotypic, with only a single species. According to Schultes' and Anderson's
descriptions, C. sativa is tall and laxly branched with relatively narrow
leaflets, C. indica is shorter, conical in shape, and has relatively wide
leaflets, and C. ruderalis is short, branchless, and grows wild in central Asia.
This taxonomic interpretation was embraced by Cannabis aficionados who commonly
distinguish narrow-leafed "sativa" drug strains from wide-leafed
"indica" drug strains.
The scientific debate regarding taxonomy has had little effect on the
terminology in widespread use among cultivators and users of drug-type Cannabis.
Cannabis aficionados recognize three distinct types based on such factors as
morphology, native range, aroma, and subjective psychoactive characteristics.
Sativa is the most widespread variety, which is usually tall, laxly branched,
and found in warm lowland regions. Indica designates shorter, bushier plants
adapted to cooler climates and highland environments. Ruderalis is the informal
name for the short plants that grow wild in Europe and central Asia.
Breeders, seed companies, and cultivators of drug type Cannabis often describe
the ancestry or gross phenotypic characteristics of cultivars by categorizing
them as "pure indica," "mostly indica," "indica/sativa,"
"mostly sativa", or "pure sativa."
One of the most popular and potent sativas in Africa is Malawi Gold, locally
known as chamba. It is internationally known for its potency and its flavor.
Cannabis sativa fruits (achenes) that contain the seeds.
Cannabis is predominantly dioecious, although many monoecious varieties have
been described. Subdioecy (the occurrence of monoecious individuals and
dioecious individuals within the same population) is widespread. Many
populations have been described as sexually labile.
Cannabis flower with visible trichomes.
As a result of intensive selection in cultivation, Cannabis exhibits many sexual
phenotypes that can be described in terms of the ratio of female to male flowers
occurring in the individual, or typical in the cultivar. Dioecious varieties are
preferred for drug production, where typically the female flowers are used.
Dioecious varieties are also preferred for textile fiber production, whereas
monoecious varieties are preferred for pulp and paper production. It has been
suggested that the presence of monoecy can be used to differentiate licit crops
of monoecious hemp from illicit drug crops. However, sativa strains often
produce monoecious individuals, probably as a result of inbreeding.
Plant on the left and female plant on the right.
of sex determination
Cannabis has been described as having one of the most complicated mechanisms of
sex determination among the dioecious plants. Many models have been proposed to
explain sex determination in Cannabis.
Based on studies of sex reversal in hemp, it was first reported by K. Hirata in
1924 that an XY sex-determination system is present. At the time, the XY system
was the only known system of sex determination. The X:A system was first
described in Drosophila spp in 1925.Soon thereafter, Schaffner disputed Hirata's
interpretation, and published results from his own studies of sex reversal in
hemp, concluding that an X:A system was in use and that furthermore sex was
strongly influenced by environmental conditions.
Since then, many different types of sex determination systems have been
discovered, particularly in plants. Dioecy is relatively uncommon in the plant
kingdom, and a very low percentage of dioecious plant species have been
determined to use the XY system. In most cases where the XY system is found it
is believed to have evolved recently and independently.
Since the 1920s, a number of sex determination models have been proposed for
Cannabis. Ainsworth describes sex determination in the genus as using "an
X/autosome dosage type".
A male hemp plant.
Dense raceme of carpellate flowers typical of drug-type varieties of Cannabis.
Tetrahydrocannabinol, Cannabidiol, and Effects of cannabis
Cannabis is a popular recreational drug around the world, only behind alcohol,
caffeine and tobacco. In the United States alone, it is believed that over 100
million Americans have tried Cannabis, with 25 million Americans having used it
within the past year.
The psychoactive effects of Cannabis are known to have a biphasic nature.
Primary psychoactive effects include a state of relaxation, and to a lesser
degree, euphoria from its main psychoactive compound, tetrahydrocannabinol.
Secondary psychoactive effects, such as a facility for philosophical thinking,
introspection and metacognition have been reported amongst cases of anxiety and
paranoia. Finally, the tertiary psychoactive effects of the drug cannabis, can
include an increase in heart rate and hunger, believed to be caused by
11-OH-THC, a psychoactive metabolite of THC produced in the liver.
Normal cognition is restored after approximately three hours for larger doses
via a smoking pipe, bong or vaporizer. However, if a large amount is taken
orally the effects may last much longer. After 24 hours to a few days, minuscule
psychoactive effects may be felt, depending on dosage, frequency and tolerance
to the drug.
The plant Cannabis sativa is known to cause more of a "high" by
stimulating hunger and by producing a rather more comedic, or energetic feeling.
Conversely, the Cannabis indica plant is known to cause more of a
"stoned" or meditative feeling, possibly because of a higher CBD to
Cannabidiol (CBD), which has no psychotropic effects by itself (although
sometimes showing a small stimulant effect, similar to caffeine),
attenuates, or reduces the higher anxiety levels caused by THC alone.
According to the UK medical journal The Lancet, Cannabis has a lower risk factor
for dependence compared to both nicotine and alcohol. However, everyday use of
Cannabis can in some cases be correlated with psychological withdrawal symptoms
such as irritability and insomnia, and evidence could suggest that if a user
experiences stress, the likeliness of getting a panic attack increases because
of an increase of THC metabolites. However, Cannabis withdrawal symptoms are
typically mild and are never life-threatening.
Ancient and religious uses
Religious and spiritual use of cannabis
The Yanghai Tombs, a vast ancient cemetery (54 000 m2) situated in the Turfan
district of the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of the People's Republic of
China, have revealed the 2700-year-old grave of a shaman. He is thought to have
belonged to the Jushi culture recorded in the area centuries later in the Hanshu,
Chap 96B.Near the head and foot of the shaman was a large leather basket and
wooden bowl filled with 789g of cannabis, superbly preserved by climatic and
burial conditions. An international team demonstrated that this material
contained tetrahydrocannabinol, the psychoactive component of cannabis. The
cannabis was presumably employed by this culture as a medicinal or psychoactive
agent, or an aid to divination. This is the oldest documentation of cannabis as
a pharmacologically active agent.
Settlements which date from c. 2200-1700 BCE in the Bactria and Margiana
contained elaborate ritual structures with rooms containing everything needed
for making drinks containing extracts from poppy (opium), hemp (cannabis), and
ephedra (which contains ephedrine).
"While we have no evidence of the use of ephedra among the steppe tribes,
we have already seen that they did share in the cultic use of hemp, a practice
that ranged from Romania east to the Yenisei River from at least the 3rd
millenium BC onwards where its use was later encountered in the apparatus for
smoking hemp found at Pazyryk."
Cannabis is first referred to in Hindu Vedas between 2000 and 1400 BCE, in the
Atharvaveda. By the 10th century CE, it has been suggested that it was referred
to by some in India as "food of the gods". Cannabis use eventually
became a ritual part of the Hindu festival of Holi.
In Buddhism, cannabis is generally regarded as an intoxicant and therefore a
hindrance to development of meditation and clear awareness. In ancient Germanic
culture, Cannabis was associated with the Norse love goddess, Freya. An
anointing oil mentioned in Exodus is, by some translators, said to contain
Cannabis. Sufis have used Cannabis in a spiritual context since the 13th century
In the Punjab, Cannabis or Sukha ( ਸੁੱਖਾ
ਪ੍ਰਰਸਾਦ ), "peace-giver", is
the term Sikhs use to refer to it. Initiated by the tenth guru of the Sikhs,
Guru Gobind Singh, cannabis or bhang (ਭੰਗ) was used to help in
meditation and was also used before battles to aid as a painkiller, growing
naturally all over Punjab. Narrated by many historical and native accounts
cannabis is pounded by the Sikhs, especially during religious festivals like
Hola Mohalla. Even today, Nihang Sikhs gather in their thousands at Anandpur, on
the occasion of the festival of Hola Mohalla and display their martial skills
and of course cannabis is pounded by the Nihang Sikhs. This tradition has been
in place since the time of Guru Gobind Singh. Their fighting style is referred
to as shastar vidiya, which is among the most intimidating and brutal martial
art. The compositions from the Sri Dasam Granth are used in unison with the
In modern times the Rastafari movement has embraced Cannabis as a sacrament.
Elders of the Ethiopian Zion Coptic Church, a religious movement founded in the
United States in 1975 with no ties to either Ethiopia or the Coptic Church,
consider Cannabis to be the Eucharist, claiming it as an oral tradition from
Ethiopia dating back to the time of Christ. Like the Rastafari, some modern
Gnostic Christian sects have asserted that Cannabis is the Tree of Life. Other
organized religions founded in the 20th century that treat Cannabis as a
sacrament are the THC Ministry, the Way of Infinite Harmony, Cantheism, the
Cannabis Assembly and the Church of Cognizance.
Rastafari and Sikh use tend to be among the biggest consumers of modern Cannabis
you wish to buy the highest quality Marihuana seeds visit Sensei Seeds by
going to the Dark Biology store
you wish to buy hydroponic supplies and grow lights go to the Dark
you call it weed, cannabis, pot, marijuana, or something else, the plant known
as Cannabis Sativa is actually easy to grow at home when you know what you
need to do. Growing hydroponically will provide you with higher yields and a
shorter grow time compared to growing in soil, but it can often be difficult for
the beginning grower to get started with hydroponics. However, most people think
of plants growing in water when they think 'hydroponics' but actually your
plants will get many of the benefits of hydroponics as long as they're getting
their nutrients directly in their water supply. However because of superior air
to water ratio in hydroponics, it remains the industry standard
tutorial will show you step-by-step how to grow your marijuana in 3-4 months
using the (arguably) easiest hydroponic method: hand-watering in a soil-less
medium. This grow system is designed for the beginner as an easy introductory
method to grow marijuana which is low in both cost and effort, while still
producing 1-3 ounces of dried buds per plant. All the items needed can be
purchased at either a hardware store, online, or at your local hydroponic shop
for under $300 for up to five plants. If you're growing less plants, your costs
will be even less.
all the needed items. If you're careful to shop around, you should be able to
get everything you need for five plants for $300-$500. You should expect to get
1-3 ounces off each plant at the end.
up your grow lights. They should start out a little higher than the height of
your pots, and should have room to be raised to the final height of your plants.
There are a million ways to set up or hang the lights and you will need to do
what works for your grow area. The simplest method is to either hang them from
the bar in your closet or you can also clamp the lights onto something nearby
that is the right height.
Start feeding your plants with water(filtered or tap) mixed with nutrients and
adjusted to have a pH of 5.5-6.0.
the beginning, give your plants nutrients at quarter strength and work your way
up to full strength nutrients over the course of a week or two. One of the
biggest mistakes many new growers make is giving their plant too many nutrients
which can hurt your plant. Most brands of nutrients will come with a hydroponic
feeding schedule which can usually be followed exactly.
Water your plants with pH'ed and nutrient-filled water whenever the top of the
coco coir starts feeling dry.This will start out with you watering the plants
every couple of days when they’re small, and may end up with you watering them
once a day towards the end of the plant's flowering cycle. Ensure that at least
a little extra run-off water comes out the bottom of the container whenever you
water your plants to ensure that unused nutrients don’t build up in your
medium. Coco coir and perlite are very forgiving if you accidentally over or
under-water your plant, but make sure to adjust your watering schedule
accordingly if you notice your plant’s leaves are wilting or drooping.
your marijuana plants in the Vegetative Stage of growth until they are about
half their final desired height by giving them 18-24 hours of light a day.
marijuana has two major grow phases after it's a seedling, the vegetative and
flowering stages. You will treat the plant differently depending on what stage
it's in. During the vegetative stage, your marijuana plants are only worried
about growing and getting big. In order to keep your plants in the vegetative
stage, they will need to get at least 18 hours of light a day. This simulates
‘summer’ when the days are long. You can give your plants as much as 24
hours of light per day during the vegetative stage, but you'll find success as
long as you stay within that 18-24 hours or light per day range.
height of the plant is often the main factor when determining how long to keep
your marijuana plants in the vegetative stage. Your plant can double its height
in the flowering stage, so you will want to keep the plant in the vegetative
stage until it's about half it's desired final height. If growing in a closet,
it's a good idea to keep your plants in the vegetative stage until they're
When they've achieved the correct height, tell your cannabis plants to begin the
Flowering Stage of their life so that they start producing buds by changing to a
12/12 light schedule.
the flowering stage, your plants stop worrying about growing as much, and start
putting their energy into growing flowers/buds. You will need to tell your
plants when it’s time to start flowering. In the wild, marijuana plants start
flowering when the days start getting shorter because that’s a sign that
winter is coming. In order to simulate the same conditions, you will need to
switch your light schedule so that your lights are on for 12 hours a day, and
off for 12 hours a day.
the gender of your plants 1-2 weeks after first changing the lights for the
flowering stage and get rid of any males.
making the switch in light schedule, you will start noticing the first signs of
your plant’s gender about 1-2 weeks. Female plants will grow white hairs and
males will start growing grape-like balls that eventually become pollen sacs. In
order to maximize on the amount of bud you get, you will want to make sure you
remove any male plants so they don’t pollinate your females. If male and
female plants stay together, than your females will end up making lots of seeds
instead of buds. You also don’t get any usable bud off of a male plant, only
Wait patiently while your plants mature in the flowering stage. This is often
the toughest part for beginning growers. The Flowering Stage can last from 6
weeks to 12 weeks or longer depending on the marijuana strain that you're
9 Start feeding your marijuana plants just plain, pH'ed water 1-2 weeks
before it's time to harvest. Otherwise you may actually be able to taste the
nutrients in your final buds(has a chemical after-taste).
the end of your plant’s flowering cycle, you may notice that some of the
oldest leaves start turning yellow and falling off. This is totally normal and
is a sign that your plant is taking nitrogen out of the leaves and putting them
into the buds/flowers. This is a signal that it's getting close to harvest time,
and you'll usually want to stop giving your plants nutrients with their water
for the last 1-2 weeks to ensure the best possible taste of your final bud.
Harvest your plants (when they're ready) by cutting down the whole plant or
cutting off pieces of buds at a time.
are many methods to determine the right time to harvest your plant. Basically,
you want to harvest when 50-75% of the white pistils/hairs have turned
amber/brown. Another way to tell is when the trichomes (also known as crystals
or resin glands) are either all white/milky or half white and half amber.
Harvesting earlier will give a more thoughtful or in-your-head marijuana
experience while harvesting later will give you a heavier or more relaxing
marijuana experience. You will want to experiment to find what harvest time is
the best for you.
Trim your plant so that there aren't any leaves sticking out from the buds.
Leaves will make your final smoke a lot more harsh and don't contain much THC,
so you don't want them in your final product. You can still use them to make
hash, butter, or Green Dragon.
Hang your trimmed buds upside down in a cool, dark place and let them dry until
the buds snap off cleanly (as opposed to just bending) when you put pressure on
Place the buds in an air-tight container and leave them in a cool, dark place
for 2 weeks to a month of more to 'cure' your buds. Open the jar once a day to
get some air ventilation and make sure you release any moisture. Moisture is
your enemy when curing and will cause mold, so make sure your buds are properly
dried before curing them.
are many benefits to growing your marijuana plants indoors in a soil-less medium
that is a mixture of Coconut Coir (also known as coco coir) and perlite
(provides great aeration and drainage). Neither medium attracts bugs, and
because your plants roots get access to superior amounts of oxygen and water,
your plants will grow much faster and get higher yields than if they were grown
in soil. Plants also get higher yields and grow faster when they get their
nutrients out of their water (hydroponically) instead of seeking it out from the
the plants get taller and start blooming, you may need to get a couple more CFLs
to light them from the sides. Basically, if you see a shadowy spot, then your
plant would benefit from an extra light there.
you notice that just the tips of your leaves start turning yellow or brown, then
your plant is showing the first signs on nutrient burn (too much nutrients). If
this happens, feed the plants with half-strength nutrients for a week or so then
slowly go back to normal. Some strains of marijuana can soak up a lot of
nutrients, while certain others are prone to nutrient burn. A plant can also
show signs of nutrient burn if you don't maintain the right pH, so make sure to
always pH your water!
new growers tend to harvest their plants too early because of excitement. Your
buds will gain about 25% of their final size in the last 2 weeks, so it's
important to try to be patient and wait until the right time. Buds that are
harvested to early are also often too 'edgy' for some people. As the buds
develop, they start producing chemicals which tend to be more relaxing and
'stonier'. Many people like to cut off only a few pieces of their plant at a
time and let the rest of the plant keep growing. This will allow you to test out
the bud at different stages..
most places you can purchase seeds online which will get shipped to your
door. However, it's up to you to determine whether it's legal or not for
you to grow marijuana where you live. These days, many places are
decriminalizing marijuana, or legalizing medical marijuana, so make sure to look
into what laws apply to you.
Seeds or ClonesHigh-quality hydroponic nutrients. I recommend using Fox Farms
Hydroponic Liquid Nutrient trio and following the included instructions exactly
to put your plants in. I recommend getting 1-5 gallon pots depending on the the
size of your grow area and how big you want your plants to grow. Remember that
you will have to water plants more often if they’re kept in a small pot, but
larger pots will need more light.
Coco coir (mixed half and half with perlite for the best results) which can both
be purchased cheaply online or at a hydroponic garden store. I personally used a
coco coir hydroponic potting mix which is part of the Roots Organics line by
Aurora. This potting mix already has perlite added to it and costs less than $25
for a big bag.
CFLs (Compact Florescent Lights). You can find a 42 watt CFL bulb at your local
hardware store for around $10, and to start, you should have at least two of the
42 watt bulbs per plant.
Enough light sockets for all your light bulbs (they're less than $5 apiece at my
hardware store, usually they also come with some sort of clip you can use to
clip your lights anywhere.
A timer to make your lights go on and off when you want. You can get a cheap one
for $5 or spend up to $30 getting a nice digital one You don't necessarily need
one to start, but you will need to get a timer by the time you start flowering
your plant (about a month in).
A pH testing kit. You can find these in pet stores in the aquarium section, but
it's a better idea to get one specifically for growing(still under $20) as it
tests for pH in a more useful range for growing.
you wish to buy real, high quality Khat seeds visit the Ethno botanical
Superstore by visiting the dark
Khat (Catha edulis) is a slow-growing shrub or tree that grows to between 1.4 m
and 3.1 m tall, depending on region and rainfall. It has evergreen leaves 5–10
cm long and 1–4 cm broad. The flowers are produced on short axillary cymes 4–8
cm long. Each flower is small, with five white petals. The fruit is an oblong
three-valved capsule containing 1–3 seeds. Growing It takes nearly seven to
eight years for the Khat plant to reach its full height. Other than access to
sun and water, Khat requires little maintenance. Ground water is often pumped
from deep wells by diesel engines to irrigate the crops, or brought in by water
trucks. The plants are watered hevily starting around a month before they are
harvested to make the leaves and stems soft and moist. A good Khat plant can be
harvested four times a year, providing a year long source of income for the
It is native to the Horn of Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. Among
communities from these areas, Khat chewing has a long history as a social custom
dating back thousands of years. Khat contains a monoamine alkaloid called
cathinone, an amphetamine-like stimulant, which is said to cause excitement,
loss of appetite and euphoria. In 1980, the World Health Organization (WHO)
classified it as a drug of abuse that can produce mild to moderate psychological
dependence (less than tobacco or alcohol), although the WHO does not consider
Khat to be seriously addictive. The plant has been targeted by anti-drug
organizations such as the DEA and is therefore a controlled substance in some
countries, such as the United States, Canada and Germany, while its production,
sale and consumption are legal in other nations, including Djibouti, Ethiopia,
Somalia and Yemen. (as of writing this article but readers should check for
themselves whether or not Khat is legal in their country and not rely on this
Amongst communities in the Horn of Africa (Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia,
Somalia) and the Arabian Peninsula, Khat chewing has a long history as a social
custom dating back thousands of years. The Ancient Egyptians considered the Khat
plant a divine food, which was capable of releasing humanity's divinity. The
Egyptians used the plant for more than its stimulating effects; they used it for
transcending into "apotheosis", with the intent of making the user
There and in other parts of North Africa and the middle East (especially Yemen)
the chewing Khat predates the use of coffee and is used in a similar social
context. Its fresh leaves and tops are chewed or, less frequently, dried and
consumed as tea, in order to achieve a state of euphoria and stimulation; it
also has anorectic side-effects. The leaves or the soft part of the stem can be
chewed with either chewing gum or fried peanuts to make it easier to chew. Khat
use has traditionally been confined to the regions where it is grown, because
only the fresh leaves have the desired stimulating effects. In recent years,
however, improved roads, off-road motor vehicles, and air transportation have
increased the global distribution of this perishable commodity, and as a result,
the plant has been reported in England, Wales, Rome, Amsterdam, Canada, Israel,
Australia, New Zealand, and the United States. Traditionally Khat is used as a
socializing drug, and this is still very much the case in Yemen, where Khat
chewing is predominantly a male habit. Yemenis use traditional costumes and chew
the stimulating plant in the afternoons. Chewing Khat is also part of the Yemeni
business culture to promote decision-making, but foreigners are not expected to
participate. Some Yemeni women have their own saloons for the occasion, and
participate in chewing Khat with their husbands on weekends. Khat is so popular
in Yemen that its cultivation consumes much of the country's agricultural
The stimulant effect of the plant was originally attributed to "katin",
cathine, a phenethylamine-type substance isolated from the plant. However, the
attribution was disputed by reports showing the plant extracts from fresh leaves
contained another substance more behaviorally active than cathine. In 1975, the
related alkaloid cathinone was isolated, and its absolute configuration was
established in 1978. Cathinone is not very stable and breaks down to produce
cathine and norephedrine. These chemicals belong to the PPA (phenylpropanolamine)
family, a subset of the phenethylamines related to amphetamines and the
catecholamines epinephrine and norepinephrine.
In fact, cathinone and cathine have a very similar molecular structure to
amphetamine. Khat is sometimes confused with methcathinone (also known as cat),
a Schedule I substance that possess a similar chemical structure to the Khat
plant's cathinone active component. However, both the side effects and the
addictive properties of methcathinone are much stronger than those associated
with Khat use. When Khat leaves dry, the more potent chemical, cathinone,
decomposes within 48 hours leaving behind the milder chemical, cathine. Thus,
harvesters transport Khat by packaging the leaves and stems in plastic bags or
wrapping them in banana leaves to preserve their moisture and keep the cathinone
potent. It is also common for them to sprinkle the plant with water frequently
or use refrigeration during transportation. When the Khat leaves are chewed,
cathine and cathinone are released and absorbed through the mucous membranes of
the mouth and the lining of the stomach. The action of cathine and cathinone on
the reuptake of epinephrine and norepinephrine has been demonstrated in lab
animals, showing that one or both of these chemicals cause the body to recycle
these neurotransmitters more slowly, resulting in the wakefulness and insomnia
associated with Khat use. Receptors for serotonin show a high affinity for
cathinone suggesting that this chemical is responsible for feelings of euphoria
associated with chewing Khat. In mice, cathinone produces the same types of
nervous pacing or repetitive scratching behaviors associated with amphetamines.
The effects of cathinone peak after 15 to 30 minutes with nearly 98% of the
substance metabolized into norephedrine by the liver. Cathine is somewhat less
understood, being believed to act upon the adrenergic receptors causing the
release of epinephrine and norepinephrine. It has a half-life of about three
hours in humans.
Comparison of physical harm and dependence regarding various drugs Khat
consumption induces mild euphoria and excitement, similar to that conferred by
strong coffee. Individuals become very talkative under the influence of the
plant. The effects of oral administration of cathinone occur more rapidly than
the effects of amphetamine pills, roughly 15 minutes as compared to 30 minutes
in amphetamine. Khat can induce manic behaviors and hyperactivity similar in
effects to those produced by amphetamine. The use of Khat results in
constipation. Dilated pupils (mydriasis) are prominent during Khat consumption,
reflecting the sympathomimetic effects of the drug, which are also reflected in
increased heart rate and blood pressure. Withdrawal symptoms that may follow
occasional use include mild depression and irritability. Withdrawal symptoms
that may follow prolonged Khat use include lethargy, mild depression,
nightmares, and slight tremor. Khat is an effective anorectic (causes loss of
appetite). Long-term use can precipitate the following effects: negative impact
on liver function, permanent tooth darkening (of a greenish tinge),
susceptibility to ulcers, and diminished sex drive.
you wish to buy real, high quality betel nut visit the Ethno botanical
Superstore by visiting the dark
Areca nuts wrapped in betel leaves, appearing as they are commonly prepared and
sold in Taiwan.
The areca nut is the seed of the areca palm (Areca catechu), which grows in much
of the tropical Pacific, Asia, and parts of east Africa. It is commonly referred
to as betel nut, as it is often chewed wrapped in betel leaves.
The International Agency for Research on Cancer has concluded that chewing areca
nut is carcinogenic to humans. It made this conclusion after reviewing the
published scientific studies related to health effects of chewing areca nut.
The areca nut is not a true nut, but rather a drupe. It is commercially
available in dried, cured and fresh forms. While fresh, the husk is green and
the nut inside is soft enough to be cut with a typical knife. In the ripe fruit,
the husk becomes yellow or orange and, as it dries, the fruit inside hardens to
a wood-like consistency. At that stage, the areca nut can only be sliced using a
special scissors-like cutter (known as aḍakattera in Telugu, adake kattari
in Kannada,bajjeai in Tulu, adakitta [अडकित्ता]
in Marathi, giraya in Sinhala, jaanti in Bengali, paakkuvetti in Malayalam and
Tamil, sarautaa in Hindi, and sudi in Gujarati).
Usually for chewing, a few slices of the nut are wrapped in a betel leaf along
with lime (not to be confused with the citrus fruit named lime) and may include
clove, cardamom, catechu (kattha) and/or other spices for extra flavouring.
Betel leaf has a fresh, peppery taste, but it can also be bitter to varying
degrees depending on the variety. The combination of areca nut with betel leaf
is called tamul (তামূল/ "তামোল")in
Assamese, kavala in Kannada, tambulam in Sanskrit, bajjai in Tulu, and paan in
Hindi, Marathi, Punjabi, and Urdu.
Areca nuts are chewed with betel leaf for their effects as a mild stimulant,
causing a warming sensation in the body and slightly heightened alertness,
although the effects vary from person to person. The effect of chewing betel
leaf and areca nut together is relatively mild, and could be compared to
drinking a cup of coffee.
The areca nut contains the tannins arecatannin and gallic acid; a fixed oil gum;
a little terpineol; lignin; various saline substances; and three main alkaloids
— arecoline, arecaidine and guvacine — which all have vasoconstricting
properties. The betel leaf chewed along with the nut contains eugenol, another
vasoconstrictor. Many chewers also add small pieces of tobacco leaf to the
mixture, thereby adding the effect of nicotine, which causes greater addiction
than the drugs contained in the nut and the betel leaf.
In almost all neutrality is disputed] parts of India, Sri Lanka and southern
China, areca nuts are not only chewed along with betel leaf, but are also used
in the preparation of Ayurvedic and traditional Chinese medicines. Powdered
areca nut is used as a constituent in some dentifrices. Other medicinal
uses include the removal of tapeworms and other intestinal parasites by
swallowing a few teaspoons of powdered areca nut, drunk as a decoction, or by
taking tablets containing the extracted alkaloids. Recently it is reported that
areca nut powder extract is capable of reducing silver ion to silver
nanoparticles which may be useful as antimicrobial agent.
Areca nut and betel leaf consumption in the world
Chewing the mixture of areca nut and betel leaf is a tradition, custom or ritual
which dates back thousands of years in much of the geographical areas from South
Asia eastward to the Pacific. It constitutes an important and popular cultural
activity in many Asian and Oceanic countries, including Pakistan, the Maldives,
India, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Bhutan, Bangladesh, Burma (Myanmar), China, Laos,
Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, Cambodia, Vietnam, Taiwan, the Philippines,
Palau, Yap, Guam, Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, and Vanuatu. It is not
known how or when the areca nut and the betel leaf were first combined into one
psychoactive drug. Archaeological evidence from Thailand, Indonesia and the
Philippines suggests they have been used in tandem for at least 4000 years.
In Vietnam, the areca nut and the betel leaf are such important symbols of love
and marriage that in Vietnamese the phrase "matters of betel and
areca" (chuyện trầu cau) is synonymous with marriage. The
tradition of chewing areca nuts starts the talk between the groom's parents and
the bride's parents about the young couple's marriage. Therefore, the leaves and
juices are used ceremonially in Vietnamese weddings. The folk tale explaining
the origin of this Vietnamese tradition is a good illustration of the belief
that the combination of areca nut and the betel leaf is ideal to the point they
are practically inseparable, like an idealized married couple.
Display of the items usually included in a chewing session: The betel leaves are
folded in different ways according to the country and most have a little calcium
hydroxide daubed inside. Slices of the dry areca nut are on the upper left hand
and slices of the tender areca nut on the upper right. The pouch on the lower
right contains tobacco, a relatively recent introduction.
Malay culture and tradition hold betel nut and leaves in high esteem.
Traditionally, guests who visit a Malay house are presented with a tray of areca
nuts and betel leaves, in much the same way as drinks are offered to guests in
many cultures around the world. There is even a Malay proverb about the betel
nut, "bagaikan pinang dibelah dua", loosely translated, like a betel
nut divided in half. It usually refers to newlyweds, who are compatible to each
other, just like a betel nut when divided in half. The proverb is analogous to
the English "two peas in a pod".
In the Indian subcontinent, the chewing of betel and areca nut dates back to the
pre-Vedic period Harappan empire Formerly, in both India and Sri Lanka, it was a
custom of the royalty to chew areca nut with betel leaf. Kings had special
attendants whose duty it was to carry a box with all the necessary ingredients
for a good chewing session. There was also a custom for lovers to chew areca nut
and betel leaf together, because of its breath-freshening and relaxant
properties. A sexual symbolism thus became attached to the chewing of the nut
and the leaf. The areca nut represented the male principle, and the betel leaf
the female principle. Considered an auspicious ingredient in Hinduism and some
schools of Buddhism, the areca nut is still used along with betel leaf in
religious ceremonies, and also while honoring individuals in much of southern
In Assam, it is a tradition to offer pan-tamul (betel leaves and raw areca nut)
to guests, after tea or meals, served in a brass plate with stands called bota.
Among the Assamese, the areca nut also has a variety of uses during religious
and marriage ceremonies, where it has the role of a fertility symbol. A
tradition from Upper Assam is to invite guests to wedding receptions by offering
a few areca nuts with betel leaves. During Bihu, the husori players are offered
areca nuts and betel leaves by each household while their blessings are
Spanish mariner Álvaro de Mendaña reported observing Solomon Islanders chewing
the nut and the leaf with caustic lime, and the manner in which the habit
stained their mouths red. He noted the friendly and genial chief Malope, on
Santa Isabel Island, would offer him the combination as a token of friendship
every time they met.
Bhutan: In Bhutan areca nut is called doma. The raw areca nut, which is soft and
moist is very potent and when chewed can cause palpitation and vasoconstricting.
This form is eaten in the lower regions of Bhutan and in North Bengal, where the
nut is cut into half and put into a local paan leaf with a generous amount of
lime. In the rest of Bhutan the raw nut, with the husk on, is fermented such
that the husk rots and is easy to extract. The fermented doma has a putrid odour,
which can be smelled from miles. Traditionally, this fragrant nut is cut in half
and placed on top of a cone made of local betel leaf, which has a dash of lime
put into it. 'Myth has it that the inhabitants of Bhutan traditionally known as
Monyul, the land of Monpas where Buddhism did not reach lived on raw flesh,
drank blood and chewed bones. After the arrival of Guru Rinpoche in the 8th
century, he stopped the people from eating flesh and drinking blood and created
a substitute which is betel leaf, lime and areca nut. Today, chewing doma has
become a custom. Doma is served after meals, during rituals and ceremonies. It
is offered to friends and is chewed at work places by all sections of the
society and has become an essential part of Bhutanese life and culture.
The addition of tobacco leaf to the chewing mixture is a relatively recent
innovation, as tobacco was not introduced from the American continent until the
Effects on health
Areca nut vendor with red mouth from areca consumption preparing betel leaves
The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) regards the chewing of
betel and areca nut to be a known human carcinogen. The media has reported that
regular chewers of betel leaf and areca nut have a higher risk of damaging their
gums and acquiring cancer of the mouth, pharynx, esophagus and stomach. Studies
have found tobacco and caustic lime increase the risk of cancer from areca nut
Studies have been conducted on the use of a "pure" paan preparation:
areca nut, betel leaf, and lime only. One study found that unprocessed areca
nuts, even at high doses, displayed only a very weak carcinogenicity, whereas
use of processed areca nuts, as commonly used in paan preparations, causes
cancer. Since 1971, many studies have showed areca nut extracts to cause cancer
in rodents. In 2003 the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)
reached the conclusion that there is sufficient evidence that the habit of
chewing betel quid, with or without tobacco, is carcinogenic to humans. Support
for this conclusion is provided by a recent study which found that paan, even
without concurrent tobacco use, is a risk factor for oral cancer. The Merchant
et al. study further determined that paan, when consumed with and without
tobacco, increased oral cancer risk by 9.9 and 8.4 times, respectively, compared
to those who do not consume paan.
Chewing areca nut alone has been linked to oral submucosal fibrosis. According
to Medline Plus, "Long-term use [of betel-areca preparations] has been
associated with oral submucosal fibrosis (OSF), pre-cancerous oral lesions and
squamous cell carcinoma. Acute effects of betel chewing include asthma
exacerbation, hypertension, and tachycardia. There may additionally be a higher
risk of cancers of the liver, mouth, esophagus, stomach, prostate, cervix, and
lung with regular betel use. Other effects can include a possible effect on
blood sugar levels, which may in turn increase the risk of developing type 2
The use of areca nut paste to clean teeth is mentioned in fiction, notably in
James Joyce's Ulysses, set in 1904. However, the increase in mouth ulcers and
gum deterioration caused by chewing areca nut and betel may outweigh any
Use of areca nut has been associated with deterioration of psychosis in patients
with preexisting psychiatric disorders
According to traditional Ayurvedic medicine, chewing areca nut and betel leaf is
a good remedy against bad breath (halitosis).
In October, 2009, 30 scientists from 10 countries met at the International
Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), a World Health Organization sponsored
group, to reassess the carcinogenicity of various agents including areca nut,
and mechanisms of carcinogenesis. They concluded there is sufficient evidence
that areca nut, with or without tobacco, can cause cancer.[
Effects of chewing areca nut during pregnancy
Scientific teams from Taiwan, Malaysia and Papua New Guinea have reported that
expectant mothers who chew paan (and/or other areca nut and betel leaf
formulations) during pregnancy significantly increase adverse outcomes for the
baby. The effects were similar to those reported for mothers who consume alcohol
or tobacco during pregnancy. Incidences of lower birth weight, reduced birth
length and early term were found to be significantly higher.
In India (the largest consumer of areca nut) and Pakistan, the preparation of
nut with or without betel leaf is commonly referred to as paan. It is available
practically everywhere and is sold in ready-to-chew pouches called pan masala or
supari, as a mixture of many flavours whose primary base is areca nut crushed
into small pieces. Pan masala with a small quantity of tobacco is called gutka.
The easily discarded, small plastic supari or gutka pouches are a ubiquitous
pollutant of the South Asian environment. Some of the liquid in the mouth is
usually disposed of by spitting, producing bright red spots wherever the
expectorate lands. The Shimoga District in Karnataka is presently the largest
producer of betel nut in India.
In the Maldives, areca nut chewing is very popular, but spitting is frowned upon
and regarded as an unrefined, gross way of chewing. Usually, people prefer to
chew thin slices of the dry nut, which is sometimes roasted. Kili, a mixture of
areca nut, betel, cloves, cardamom and sugar is sold in small home-made paper
pouches. Old people who have lost their teeth keep "chewing" by
pounding the mixture of areca nut and betel with a small mortar and pestle.
In Papua New Guinea and the Solomon Islands, fresh areca nut, betel leaf or
'fruit leaf' (daka in PNG) and lime are sold on street corners. In these
countries, dried or flavoured areca nut is not popular. Areca nut chewing has
recently been introduced into Vanuatu, where it is growing in popularity,
especially in the northern islands of the country. In Guam and the neighboring
Northern Mariana Islands, betel and areca nut chewing is a social pastime as a
means to extend friendship, and can be found in many, if not most, large
gatherings as part of the food display.
In Palau, betel nut is chewed with lime, piper leaf and nowadays, with the
addition of tobacco. Older and younger generations alike enjoy the use of betel
nut, which is readily available at stores and markets. Unlike in Papua New
Guinea and the Solomon Islands, where the inner areca nut is used, in Palau, the
areca nut's skin is chewed along with lime, leaf and tobacco and the juice is
not swallowed but spat out.
In Taiwan, bags of 20 to 40 areca nuts are purchased fresh daily by a large
number of consumers. To meet the steady year-round demand, Two kinds of
betel-nut shops sell betel and nuts, as well as cigarettes and drinks, including
beer: Small mom and pop shops, often poorly maintained and often do not stand
out from other stores nearby, and shops which often consists of nothing more
than a single, free-standing room, or booth. The latter is usually elevated one
meter above the street, and measures less than 3 by 2 m. Large picture windows
comprise two or more of the walls, allowing those who pass by a complete view of
the interior. The interior is often painted brightly. Within such a shop, a
sexily dressed young woman, a "betel nut beauty, can be seen preparing
betel and areca nuts. Shops are often identified by multicoloured (commonly
green) fluorescent tubes or neon lights that frame the windows or that are
arranged radially above a store. Customers stop on the side of the road and wait
for the girls to bring their betel and areca nut to their vehicles. The habit of
chewing betel nut is often associated with blue-collar labor industries such a
long-haul transportation, construction, or fishing. Workers in these
labor-intensive industries use betel nut for its stimulating effect, but it also
becomes a tool for socializing with coworkers. For example, studies have shown
chewing betel nut is prevalent among taxi, bus and truck drivers, who rely on
the stimulating effect of betel nut to cope with long work hours. For these
reasons, oral cancer has been identified as a leading cause of death in
professions with high betel nut-chewing rates.
In Hainan and Hunan Province, China, where Xiangtan is a center of use and
processing, a wide range of old and young people consume areca nut daily. Most,
though, consume the dried variety of the nut by itself, without the betel
leaves. Some people also consume the areca nut in its raw, fresh form with or
without the betel leaves. Betel nuts are sold mostly by old women walking around
trying to sell it, but the dried version can be found in most shops which sell
tea, alcohol and cigarettes.
In Thailand, the consumption of areca nut has declined gradually in the last
decades. The younger generation rarely chews the substance, especially in the
cities. Most of the present-day consumption is confined to older generations,
mostly people above 50. Even so, small trays of betel leaves and sliced tender
arecanut are sold in markets and used as offerings in Buddhist shrines.
In the Philippines, chewing the areca nut and betel leaf was a very widespread
tradition in the past. Now, though, this tradition is almost dead among the
urban people in the cities and big towns, and has largely been replaced by
chewing gum and cigarettes. Nowadays, older people are the only ones chewing
betel nuts. But in rural areas, betel nut-chewing is very much alive.
In the United States, areca nut is not a controlled or specially taxed substance
and may be found in some Asian grocery stores. However, importation of areca nut
in a form other than whole or carved kernels of nuts can be stopped at the
discretion of US Customs officers on the grounds of food, agricultural, or
medicinal drug violations. Such actions by Customs are very rare. In the United
Kingdom, areca nut is readily available in Asian grocery stores and even in
shredded forms from the World Food aisles of larger Tesco supermarkets.
Possession of betel nut or leaf is banned in the UAE and is a punishable
you wish to buy real, high quality tobacco and tobacco seeds visit the
Ethno botanical Superstore by visiting the
dark biology store
Tobacco is an agricultural product processed from the leaves of plants in the
genus Nicotiana. It can be consumed, used as a pesticide and, in the form of
nicotine tartrate, used in some medicines.It is most commonly used as a drug,
and is a valuable cash crop for countries such as Cuba, India, China, and the
United States. Tobacco is a name for any plant of the genus Nicotiana of the
Solanaceae family (nightshade family) and for the product manufactured from the
leaf used in cigars and cigarettes, snuff, and pipe and chewing tobacco. Tobacco
plants are also used in plant bioengineering, and some of the more than 70
species are grown as ornamentals. The chief commercial species, N. tabacum, is
believed native to tropical America, like most nicotiana plants, but has been so
long cultivated that it is no longer known in the wild. N. rustica, a
mild-flavored, fast-burning species, was the tobacco originally raised in
Virginia, but it is now grown chiefly in Turkey, India, and Russia. The alkaloid
nicotine is popularly considered the most characteristic constituent of tobacco
but nicotine is not highly addictive on its own. It is thought that the
interaction between beta-carbolines and nicotine is responsible for most of the
addictive properties of tobacco smoking. The harmful effects of tobacco derive
from the thousands of different compounds generated in the smoke, including
polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (such as benzpyrene), formaldehyde, cadmium,
nickel, arsenic, tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs), phenols, and many
In consumption it most commonly appears in the forms of smoking, chewing,
snuffing, or dipping tobacco. Tobacco had long been in use as an entheogen in
the Americas, but upon the arrival of Europeans in North America, it quickly
became popularized as a trade item and a widely abused drug. This popularization
led to the development of the southern economy of the United States until it
gave way to cotton. Following the American Civil War, a change in demand and a
change in labor force allowed for the development of the cigarette. This new
product quickly led to the growth of tobacco companies.
Because of the powerfully addictive properties of tobacco, tolerance and
dependence develop. The usage of tobacco is an activity that is practiced by
some 1.1 billion people, and up to 1/3 of the adult population. The World Health
Organization (WHO) reports it to be the leading preventable cause of death
worldwide and estimates that it currently causes 5.4 million deaths per year.
Rates of smoking have leveled off or declined in developed countries, but
continue to rise in developing countries.
Tobacco is cultivated similarly to other agricultural products. Seeds are sown
in cold frames or hotbeds to prevent attacks from insects, and then transplanted
into the fields. Tobacco is an annual crop, which is usually harvested
mechanically or by hand. After harvest, tobacco is stored for curing, either by
hanging, bundling or placing in large piles with tubular vents to allow the heat
to escape from the center. Curing allows for the slow oxidation and degradation
of carotenoids. This allows for the agricultural product to take on properties
that are usually attributed to the "smoothness" of the smoke.
Following this, tobacco is packed into its various forms of consumption, which
include smoking, chewing, snuffing, and so on. Most cigarettes incorporate
flue-cured tobacco, which produces a milder, more inhalable smoke. Use of
low-pH, inhalable, flue-cured tobacco is one of the principal reasons smoking
causes lung cancer and other diseases association with smoke inhalation.
The Spanish and Portuguese word tabaco is thought to have originated in Taino,
the Arawakan language of the Caribbean. In Taino, it was said to refer either to
a roll of tobacco leaves (according to Bartolomé de las Casas, 1552), or to the
tabago, a kind of Y-shaped pipe for sniffing tobacco smoke also known as snuff
(according to Oviedo; with the leaves themselves being referred to as cohiba).
However, similar words in Spanish, Portuguese and Italian were commonly used
from 1410 to define medicinal herbs, originating from the Arabic
طبق tabbaq, a word reportedly dating to the 9th century, as
the name of various herbs.
The earliest depiction of a European man smoking, from Tabacco by Anthony Chute.
Tobacco had already long been used in the Americas when European settlers
arrived and introduced the practice to Europe, where it became popular. Many
Native American tribes have traditionally grown and used tobacco with some
cultivation sites in Mexico dating back to 1400-1000 B.C. [Eastern North
American tribes carried large amounts of tobacco in pouches as a readily
accepted trade item, and often smoked it in peace pipes, either in defined
sacred ceremonies, or to seal a bargain, and they smoked it at such occasions in
all stages of life, even in childhood. It was believed that tobacco is a gift
from the Creator, and that the exhaled tobacco smoke carries one's thoughts and
prayers to heaven. Before the development of lighter Virginia and White Burley
strains of tobacco, the smoke was too harsh to be inhaled traditionally by
Native Americans in ceremonial use or by Europeans who used it in the form of
pipes and cigars. Inhaling "rough" tobacco without seriously damaging
the lungs in the short term required smoking only small quantities at a time
using a pipe like the midwakh or kiseru or smoking newly invented waterpipes
such as the bong or the hookah (See Thuoc lao for a modern continuance of this
practice). Inhaling smoke was already common in the East with the introduction
of cannabis and opium millennia before.
Following the arrival of the Europeans, tobacco became increasingly popular as a
trade item. It fostered the economy for the southern United States until it was
replaced by cotton. Following the American civil war, a change in demand and a
change in labor force allowed inventor James Bonsack to create a machine that
automated cigarette production.
This increase in production allowed tremendous growth in the tobacco industry
until the scientific revelations of the mid-20th century.
Following the scientific revelations of the mid-20th century, tobacco became
condemned as a health hazard, and eventually became encompassed as a cause for
cancer, as well as other respiratory and circulatory diseases. In the United
States, this led to the Tobacco Master Settlement Agreement (MSA), which settled
the lawsuit in exchange for a combination of yearly payments to the states and
voluntary restrictions on advertising and marketing of tobacco products.
In the 1970s, Brown & Williamson cross-bred a strain of tobacco to produce
Y1. This strain of tobacco contained an unusually high amount of nicotine,
nearly doubling its content from 3.2-3.5% to 6.5%. In the 1990s, this prompted
the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to use this strain as evidence that
tobacco companies were intentionally manipulating the nicotine content of
In 2003, in response to growth of tobacco use in developing countries, the World
Health Organization (WHO) successfully rallied 168 countries to sign the
Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. The Convention is designed to push for
effective legislation and its enforcement in all countries to reduce the harmful
effects of tobacco. This led to the development of tobacco cessation products.
Nicotine is the compound responsible for the addictive nature of Tobacco use.
There are many species of tobacco in the genus of herbs Nicotiana. It is part of
the nightshade family (Solanaceae) indigenous to North and South America,
Australia, South West Africa and the South Pacific.
Many plants contain nicotine, a powerful neurotoxin to insects. However,
tobaccos contain a higher concentration of nicotine than most other plants.
Unlike many other Solanaceae, they do not contain tropane alkaloids, which are
often poisonous to humans and other animals.
Despite containing enough nicotine and other compounds such as germacrene and
anabasine and other piperidine alkaloids (varying between species) to deter most
herbivores, a number of such animals have evolved the ability to feed on
Nicotiana species without being harmed. Nonetheless, tobacco is unpalatable to
many species, and accordingly some tobacco plants (chiefly tree tobacco, N.
glauca) have become established as invasive weeds in some places.
Types of tobacco
There are a number of types of tobacco including, but are not limited to:
Aromatic fire-cured is cured by smoke from open fires. In the United States, it
is grown in northern middle Tennessee, central Kentucky and in Virginia.
Fire-cured tobacco grown in Kentucky and Tennessee are used in some chewing
tobaccos, moist snuff, some cigarettes, and as a condiment in pipe tobacco
blends. Another fire-cured tobacco is Latakia, which is produced from oriental
varieties of N. tabacum. The leaves are cured and smoked over smoldering fires
of local hardwoods and aromatic shrubs in Cyprus and Syria.
Brightleaf tobacco, Brightleaf is commonly known as "Virginia
tobacco", often regardless of the state where they are planted. Prior to
the American Civil War, most tobacco grown in the US was fire-cured dark-leaf.
This type of tobacco was planted in fertile lowlands, used a robust variety of
leaf, and was either fire cured or air cured. Most Canadian cigarettes are made
from 100% pure Virginia tobacco.
Burley tobacco, is an air-cured tobacco used primarily for cigarette production.
In the U.S., burley tobacco plants are started from palletized seeds placed in
polystyrene trays floated on a bed of fertilized water in March or April.
Cavendish is more a process of curing and a method of cutting tobacco than a
type. The processing and the cut are used to bring out the natural sweet taste
in the tobacco. Cavendish can be produced from any tobacco type, but is usually
one of, or a blend of Kentucky, Virginia, and burley, and is most commonly used
for pipe tobacco and cigars.
Criollo tobacco is a type of tobacco, primarily used in the making of cigars. It
was, by most accounts, one of the original Cuban tobaccos that emerged around
the time of Columbus.
Dokha, is a tobacco originally grown in Iran, mixed with leaves, bark, and herbs
for smoking in a midwakh.
Turkish tobacco, is a sun-cured, highly aromatic, small-leafed variety (Nicotiana
tabacum) that is grown in Turkey, Greece, Bulgaria, and Macedonia. Originally
grown in regions historically part of the Ottoman Empire, it is also known as
"oriental". Many of the early brands of cigarettes were made mostly or
entirely of Turkish tobacco; today, its main use is in blends of pipe and
especially cigarette tobacco (a typical American cigarette is a blend of bright
Virginia, burley and Turkish).
Perique, a farmer called Pierre Chenet is credited with first turning this local
tobacco into the Perique in 1824 through the technique of pressure-fermentation.
Considered the truffle of pipe tobaccos, it is used as a component in many
blended pipe tobaccos, but is too strong to be smoked pure. At one time, the
freshly moist Perique was also chewed, but none is now sold for this purpose. It
is typically blended with pure Virginia to lend spice, strength, and coolness to
Shade tobacco, is cultivated in Connecticut and Massachusetts. Early Connecticut
colonists acquired from the Native Americans the habit of smoking tobacco in
pipes, and began cultivating the plant commercially, even though the Puritans
referred to it as the "evil weed". The Connecticut shade industry has
weathered some major catastrophes, including a devastating hailstorm in 1929,
and an epidemic of brown spot fungus in 2000, but is now in danger of
disappearing altogether, given the value of the land to real estate speculators.
White burley, in 1865, George Webb of Brown County, Ohio planted red burley
seeds he had purchased, and found that a few of the seedlings had a whitish,
sickly look. The air-cured leaf was found to be more mild than other types of
Wild tobacco, is native to the southwestern United States, Mexico, and parts of
South America. Its botanical name is Nicotiana rustica.
Y1 is a strain of tobacco cross-bred by Brown & Williamson in the 1970s to
obtain an unusually high nicotine content. In the 1990s, the United States Food
and Drug Administration (FDA) used it as evidence that tobacco companies were
intentionally manipulating the nicotine content of cigarettes.
Cultivation of tobacco
Tobacco is cultivated similarly to other agricultural products. Seeds were at
first quickly scattered onto the soil. However, young plants came under
increasing attack from flea beetles (Epitrix cucumeris or Epitrix pubescens),
which caused destruction of half the tobacco crops in United States in 1876. By
1890 successful experiments were conducted that placed the plant in a frame
covered by thin cotton fabric. Today, tobacco is sown in cold frames or hotbeds,
as their germination is activated by light.
In the United States, tobacco is often fertilized with the mineral apatite,
which partially starves the plant of nitrogen, to produce a more desired flavor.
Apatite, however, contains radium, and lead 210—which are known carcinogens.
After the plants are about eight inches tall, they are transplanted into the
fields. Farmers used to have to wait for rainy weather to plant. A hole is
created in the tilled earth with a tobacco peg, either a curved wooden tool or
deer antler. After making two holes to the right and left - you would move
forward two feet, select plants from your bag and repeat. Various mechanical
tobacco planters like Bemis, New Idea Setter, and New Holland Transplanter were
invented in the late 19th and 20th centuries to automate the process: making the
hole, watering it, guiding the plant in — all in one motion.
Tobacco is cultivated annually, and can be harvested in several ways. In the
oldest method still used today, the entire plant is harvested at once by cutting
off the stalk at the ground with a tobacco knife. It is then speared onto
sticks, four to six plants a stick and hung in a curing barn. In the 19th
century, bright tobacco began to be harvested by pulling individual leaves off
the stalk as they ripened. The leaves ripen from the ground upwards, so a field
of tobacco harvested in this manner will involve the serial harvest of a number
of "primings," beginning with the volado leaves near the ground,
working to the second leaves in the middle of the plant, and finishing with the
potent ligero leaves at the top. Before this the crop needs to be topped when
the pink flowers develop. Topping always refers to the removal of the tobacco
flower before the leaves are systematically removed and, eventually, entirely
harvested. As the industrial revolution took hold, harvesting wagons used to
transport leaves were equipped with man-powered stringers, an apparatus that
used twine to attach leaves to a pole. In modern times, large fields are
harvested mechanically, although topping the flower and in some cases the
plucking of immature leaves is still done by hand. Most tobacco in the U.S. is
grown in Kentucky, Virginia and North Carolina.
Curing and subsequent aging allow for the slow oxidation and degradation of
carotenoids in tobacco leaf. This produces certain compounds in the tobacco
leaves, and gives a sweet hay, tea, rose oil, or fruity aromatic flavor that
contributes to the "smoothness" of the smoke. Starch is converted to
sugar, which glycates protein, and is oxidized into advanced glycation end
products (AGEs), a caramelization process that also adds flavor. Inhalation of
these AGEs in tobacco smoke contributes to atherosclerosis and cancer. Levels of
AGE's is dependent on the curing method used.
Tobacco can be cured through several methods, including:
Air cured tobacco is hung in well-ventilated barns and allowed to dry over a
period of four to eight weeks. Air-cured tobacco is low in sugar, which gives
the tobacco smoke a light, mild flavor, and high in nicotine. Cigar and burley
tobaccos are 'Dark' air cured.
Fire cured tobacco is hung in large barns where fires of hardwoods are kept on
continuous or intermittent low smoulder and takes between three days and ten
weeks, depending on the process and the tobacco. Fire curing produces a tobacco
low in sugar and high in nicotine. Pipe tobacco, chewing tobacco, and snuff are
Flue cured tobacco was originally strung onto tobacco sticks, which were hung
from tier-poles in curing barns (Aus: kilns, also traditionally called Oasts).
These barns have flues run from externally fed fire boxes, heat-curing the
tobacco without exposing it to smoke, slowly raising the temperature over the
course of the curing. The process generally takes about a week. This method
produces cigarette tobacco that is high in sugar and has medium to high levels
Sun-cured tobacco dries uncovered in the sun. This method is used in Turkey,
Greece and other Mediterranean countries to produce oriental tobacco. Sun-cured
tobacco is low in sugar and nicotine and is used in cigarettes.
Tobacco is consumed in many forms and through a number of different methods.
Below are examples including, but not limited to, such forms and usage.
Beedi are thin, often flavored, south Asian cigarettes made of tobacco wrapped
in a tendu leaf, and secured with colored thread at one end.
Chewing tobacco is the oldest way of consuming tobacco leaves. It is consumed
orally, in two forms: through sweetened strands, or in a shredded form. When
consuming the long sweetened strands, the tobacco is lightly chewed and
compacted into a ball. When consuming the shredded tobacco, small amounts are
placed at the bottom lip, between the gum and the teeth, where it is gently
compacted, thus it can often be called dipping tobacco. Both methods stimulate
the saliva glands, which led to the development of the spittoon.
Cigars are tightly rolled bundles of dried and fermented tobacco, which is
ignited so its smoke may be drawn into the smoker's mouth.
Cigarettes are a product consumed through inhalation of smoke and manufactured
from cured and finely cut tobacco leaves and reconstituted tobacco, often
combined with other additives, then rolled or stuffed into a paper cylinder.
Creamy snuffs are tobacco paste, consisting of tobacco, clove oil, glycerin,
spearmint, menthol, and camphor, and sold in a toothpaste tube. It is marketed
mainly to women in India, and is known by the brand names Ipco (made by Asha
Industries), Denobac, Tona, Ganesh. It is locally known as "mishri" in
some parts of Maharashtra.
Dipping tobaccos are a form of smokeless tobacco. Dip is occasionally referred
to as "chew", and because of this, it is commonly confused with
chewing tobacco, which encompasses a wider range of products. A small clump of
dip is 'pinched' out of the tin and placed between the lower or upper lip and
Gutka is a preparation of crushed betel nut, tobacco, and sweet or savory
flavorings. It is manufactured in India and exported to a few other countries. A
mild stimulant, it is sold across India in small, individual-size packets.
Hookah is a single or multi-stemmed (often glass-based) water pipe for smoking.
Originally from India, the hookah has gained immense popularity, especially in
the Middle East. A hookah operates by water filtration and indirect heat. It can
be used for smoking herbal fruits or moassel, a mixture of tobacco, flavouring
and honey or glycerin.
Kreteks are cigarettes made with a complex blend of tobacco, cloves and a
flavoring "sauce". It was first introduced in the 1880s in Kudus,
Java, to deliver the medicinal eugenol of cloves to the lungs.
Roll-Your-Own, often called rollies or roll ups, are very popular, particularly
in European countries. These are prepared from loose tobacco, cigarette papers
and filters all bought separately. They are usually much cheaper to make.
Pipe smoking typically consists of a small chamber (the bowl) for the combustion
of the tobacco to be smoked and a thin stem (shank) that ends in a mouthpiece
(the bit). Shredded pieces of tobacco are placed into the chamber and ignited.
Snuff is a generic term for fine-ground smokeless tobacco products. Originally
the term referred only to dry snuff, a fine tan dust popular mainly in the 18th
century. Snuff powder originated in the UK town of Great Harwood, and was
famously ground in the town's monument prior to local distribution and transport
further up north to Scotland. There are two major varieties: European (dry) and
American (moist)—though American snuff is often called dipping tobacco.
Snus is a steam-cured moist powder tobacco product that is not fermented, and
does not induce salivation. It is consumed by placing it in the mouth against
the gums for an extended period of time. It is a form of snuff used in a manner
similar to American dipping tobacco, but does not require regular spitting.
Topical tobacco paste is sometimes recommended as a treatment for wasp, hornet,
fire ant, scorpion, and bee stings. An amount equivalent to the contents of
a cigarette is mashed in a cup with about a 0.5 to 1 teaspoon of water to make a
paste that is then applied to the affected area.
Tobacco water is a traditional organic insecticide used in domestic gardening.
Tobacco dust can be used similarly. It is produced by boiling strong tobacco in
water, or by steeping the tobacco in water for a longer period. When cooled, the
mixture can be applied as a spray, or 'painted' on to the leaves of garden
plants, where it kills insects. Tobacco is however banned from use as pesticide
in certified organic production.
Production of tobacco leaf increased by 40% between 1971, during which 4.2
million tons of leaf were produced, and 1997, during which 5.9 million tons of
leaf were produced. According to the Food and Agriculture organization of the
UN, tobacco leaf production was expected to hit 7.1 million tons by 2010. This
number is a bit lower than the record high production of 1992, during which 7.5
million tons of leaf were produced. The production growth was almost entirely
due to increased productivity by developing nations, where production increased
by 128%. During that same time period, production in developing countries
actually decreased. China's increase in tobacco production was the single
biggest factor in the increase in world production. China’s share of the world
market increased from 17% in 1971 to 47% in 1997. This growth can be partially
explained by the existence of a high import tariff on foreign tobacco entering
China. While this tariff has been reduced from 64% in 1999 to 10% in 2004, it
still has led to local, Chinese cigarettes being preferred over foreign
cigarettes because of their lower cost.
Every year 6.7 million tons of tobacco are produced throughout the world. The
top producers of tobacco are China (39.6%), India (8.3%), Brazil (7.0%) and the
United States (4.6%).
Around the peak of global tobacco production there were 20 million rural Chinese
households producing tobacco on 2.1 million hectares of land. While it is the
major crop for millions of Chinese farmers, growing tobacco is not as profitable
as cotton or sugar cane. This is because the Chinese government sets the market
price. While this price is guaranteed, it is lower than the natural market
price, because of the lack of market risk. To further control tobacco in their
borders, China founded a State Tobacco Monopoly Administration (STMA) in 1982.
STMA control tobacco production, marketing, imports and exports and contributes
12% to the nation's national income. As noted above, despite the income
generated for the state by profits from state-owned tobacco companies and the
taxes paid by companies and retailers, China's government has acted to reduce
Each year 5% of the total land of Pakistan is cultivated for tobacco. It is
widely grown in Southern Punjab and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan.
In Brazil around 135,000 family farmers cite tobacco production as their main
economic activity. Tobacco has never exceeded 0.7% of the country’s total
cultivated area. In the southern regions of Brazil, Virginia and Amarelinho
flue-cured tobacco as well as Burley and Galpao Comun air-cured tobacco are
produced. These types of tobacco are used for cigarettes. In the northeast,
darker, air- and sun-cured tobacco is grown. These types of tobacco are used for
cigars, twists and dark-cigarettes. Brazil’s government has made attempts to
reduce the production of tobacco, but has not had a successful systematic
anti-tobacco farming initiative. Brazil’s government, however, provides small
loans for family farms, including those that grow tobacco, through the Programa
Nacional de Fortalecimento da Agricultura Familiar (PRONAF).
India's Tobacco Board is headquartered in Guntur in the state of Andhra Pradesh.
India has 96,865 registered tobacco farmers and many more who are not
registered. In 2010, there were 3,120 tobacco product manufacturing facilities
in all of India. Around 0.25% of India’s cultivated land is used for
Since 1947, the Indian Government has supported growth in the tobacco industry.
India has seven tobacco research centers, located in Madras (now known as
Chennai, Tamil Nadu), Andhra Pradesh, Punjab, Bihar, Mysore, West Bengal, and
Rajamundry. Rajahmundry houses the core research institute. The government has
set up a Central Tobacco Promotion Council, which works to increase exports of
The Indian Government and several states have taken multiple measures to reduce
Cigarette smoking. Smoking in public places is banned in many states, it is not
allowed to be portrayed in movies, and warnings are posted on cigarette packs.
Tobacco in the Philippines remained highly concentrated in 2009 and dominated by
cigarette manufacturers Fortune Tobacco Corporation and Philip Morris
International. The strength of these companies is due to their extensive
distribution networks which encompass both traditional and non-traditional
retail channels as well as their ability to offer their products at affordable
prices. Top player Fortune Tobacco Corp maintained its leadership position
throughout the review period as mass market cigarette smokers continued to
purchase its economy cigarette brands, particularly leading brand Fortune
Cigarette prices in the Philippines are low, with the price of Marlboro
(cigarette) being the second lowest for all ASEAN nations. The cigarette market
has been dominated by menthol brands for several decades, although non-menthol
volume has been steadily improving in recent years. La Suerte Cigar and
Cigarette Company and the Fortune Tobacco Corporation (FTC) have been the two
leading producers, and have had licensing agreements with PMI and RJ Reynolds
(RJR) respectively. FTC commands a 67% market share, while La Suerte holds a 25%
Problems in tobacco production
Tobacco production requires the use of a large amount of pesticides. Tobacco
companies recommend up to 16 separate applications of pesticides just in the
period between planting the seeds in greenhouses and transplanting the young
plants to the field. Pesticide use has been worsened by the desire to
produce larger crops in less time because of the decreasing market value of
tobacco. Pesticides often harm tobacco farmers because they are unaware of the
health effects and the proper safety protocol for working with pesticides. These
pesticides, as well as fertilizers, end up in the soil, waterways, and the food
chain. Coupled with child labor, pesticides pose an even greater threat. Early
exposure to pesticides may increase a child's lifelong cancer risk as well as
harm his or her nervous and immune systems.
Tobacco is a crop that extracts nutrients, such as phosphorus, nitrogen and
potassium, from the soil more quickly than any other major crop. This leads to
dependence on fertilizers.
Furthermore, the wood used to cure tobacco in some places leads to
deforestation. While some big tobacco producers such as China and the United
States have access to petroleum, coal and natural gas, which can be used as
alternatives to wood, most developing countries still rely on wood in the curing
process. Brazil alone uses the wood of 60 million trees per year for curing,
packaging and rolling cigarettes.
Because of its importance as a research too, transgenic tobacco was the first GM
crop to be tested in field trials, in the United States and France in 1986;
China became the first country in the world to approve commercial planting of a
GM crop in 1993, which was tobacco.
Many varieties of transgenic tobacco have been intensively tested in field
trials. Agronomic traits such as resistance to pathogens (viruses, particularly
to the tobacco mosaic virus (TMV); fungi; bacteria and nematodes); weed
management via herbicide tolerance; resistance against insect pests; resistance
to drought and cold; and production of useful products such as pharmaceuticals;
and use of GM plants for bioremediation, have all been tested in over 400 field
trials using tobacco.
Currently, only China and the US are producing GM tobacco. The Chinese tobacco
is believed to be herbicide resistant. In the US, cigarettes made with GM
tobacco with reduced nicotine content are available under the market name Quest.
containing plants especially Dimethyltryptamine (DMT)
you wish to buy real, high quality tryptamine containing seeds visit the
Ethno botanical Superstore by visiting the dark
Many of the psychedelic plants contain dimethyltryptamine (DMT), which is either
snorted (Virola, Yopo snuffs), smoked, or drunk with MAOIs (Ayahuasca). It
cannot simply be eaten as it is not orally active without an MAOI and it needs
to be extremely concentrated to be smokable.
Species, Alkaloid content, where given, refers to dried material
Fittonia albivenis, a common ornamental plant from South America. It is useful
in the treatment of headaches, etc.
Justicia pectoralis, DMT in leaves
Acer saccharinum (Silver Maple Tree) was found to contain the indole alkaloid
gramine (not active and extremely toxic) 0.05% in the leaves, so it is possible
that other members of this plant family contain active compounds.
Delosperma acuminatum, DMT, 5-MEO-DMT
Delosperma cooperi, DMT, 5-MEO-DMT
Delosperma ecklonis, DMT
Delosperma esterhuyseniae, DMT
Delosperma hallii, 5-MEO-DMT
Delosperma harazianum, DMT, 5-MEO-DMT
Delosperma hirtum, DMT
Delosperma lydenbergense, DMT, 5-MEO-DMT
Delosperma nubigenum, 5-MEO-DMT
Delosperma pageanum, DMT, 5-MEO-DMT
Delosperma pergamentaceum, Traces of DMT
Delosperma tradescantioides, DMT
Prestonia amazonica: DMT
Voacanga africana: Iboga alkaloids
Acacia acuminata, Up to 1.5% alkaloids, mainly consisting of dimethyltryptamine
in bark & leaf Also, Harman, Tryptamine, NMT, other alkaloids in leaf.
Acacia alpina, Active principles in leaf
Acacia angustissima, β-methyl-phenethylamine, NMT and DMT in leaf (1.1-10.2
Acacia aroma, Tryptamine alkaloids.Significant amount of tryptamine in the
Acacia auriculiformis, 5-MeO-DMT in stem bark
Acacia baileyana, 0.02% tryptamine and β-carbolines, in the leaf,
Acacia beauverdiana, Psychoactive Ash used in Pituri.
Acacia berlandieri, DMT, amphetamines, mescaline, nicotine
Acacia catechu, DMT and other tryptamines in leaf, bark
Acacia caven, Psychoactive
Acacia chundra, DMT and other tryptamines in leaf, bark
Acacia colei, DMT
Acacia complanata, 0.3% alkaloids in leaf and stem, almost all N-methyl-tetrahydroharman,
with traces of tetrahydroharman, some of tryptamine
Acacia confusa, DMT & NMT in leaf, stem & bark 0.04% NMT and 0.02% DMT
in stem.Also N,N-dimethyltryptamine N-oxide[2
Acacia cornigera, Psychoactive, Tryptamines
DMT according to C. Rastch.
Acacia cultriformis, Tryptamine, in the leaf, stemand seeds. Phenethylamine in
leaf and seeds
Acacia cuthbertsonii, Psychoactive
Acacia decurrens, Psychoactive, but less than 0.02% alkaloids
Acacia delibrata, Psychoactive
Acacia falcata, Psychoactive, but less than 0.02% alkaloidsPsychoactive 0.2-0.3%
Acacia farnesiana, Traces of 5-MeO-DMTin fruit. β-methyl-phenethylamine,
flower. Ether extracts about 2-6% of the dried leaf mass. Alkaloids are present
in the bark and leaves. Amphetamines and mescaline also found in tree.
Acacia flavescens, Strongly Psychoactive, Bark.
Acacia floribunda, Tryptamine, phenethylamine, in flowers other tryptamines, DMT,
tryptamine, NMT 0.3-0.4% phyllodes.
Acacia georginae, Psychoactive, plus deadly toxins
Acacia horrida, Psychoactive
Acacia implexa, Psychoactive
Acacia jurema, DMT, NMT
Acacia karroo, Psychoactive
Acacia laeta, DMT, in the leaf
Acacia longifolia, 0.2% tryptamine in bark, leaves, some in flowers,
phenylethylamine in flowers, 0.2% DMT in plant. Histamine alkaloids.
Acacia sophorae, Tryptamine in leaves, bark
Acacia macradenia, Tryptamine
Acacia maidenii, 0.6% NMT and DMT in about a 2:3 ratio in the stem bark, both
present in leaves
Acacia mangium, Psychoactive
Acacia melanoxylon, DMT, in the bark and leaf, but less than 0.02% total
Acacia mellifera, DMT, in the leaf
Acacia nilotica, DMT, in the leaf
Acacia nilotica subsp. adstringens, Psychoactive, DMT in the leaf
Acacia neurophylla DMT in bark, Harman in leaf.
Acacia obtusifolia, Tryptamine, DMT, NMT, other tryptamines, 0.4-0.5% in dried
bark,0.15-0.2% in leaf, 0.07% in branch tips.
Acacia oerfota, Less than 0.1% DMT in leaf, NMT
Acacia penninervis, Psychoactive
Acacia phlebophylla, 0.3% DMT in leaf, NMT
Acacia podalyriaefolia, Tryptamine in the leaf, 0.5% to 2% DMT in fresh bark,
phenethylamine, trace amounts. Although this species is claimed to contain 0.5%
to 2% DMT in fresh bark the reference for this is invalid as there is no
reference to Acacia Podalyriffolia anywhere in the reference article.
Additionally, well known and proven extraction techniques for DMT have failed to
produce any DMT or alkaloids from fresh bark or the leaves on multiple sample
taken at various seasons. Should DMT actually exist in this species of Acacia
then it exists in extremely small amounts and have failed to produce any
alkaloids with Acid/Base extraction techniques using HCl/Na(OH)2. On the same
note, more academic research is definitely required into the DMT content of this
and other Australian Acacia species with proper chemical analysis of sample.
Acacia polyacantha, DMT in leaf and other tryptamines in leaf, bark
Acacia polyacantha ssp. campylacantha, Less than 0.2% DMT in leaf, NMT; DMT and
other tryptamines in leaf, bark
Acacia rigidula, DMT, NMT, tryptamine, traces of amphetamines, mescaline,
nicotine and others
Acacia sassa, Psychoactive
Acacia schaffneri, β-methyl-phenethylamine, Phenethylamine Amphetamines and
mescaline also found.
Acacia senegal, Less than 0.1% DMT in leaf, NMT, other tryptamines. DMT in
plant, DMT in bark.
Acacia seyal, DMT, in the leaf.Ether extracts about 1-7% of the dried leaf mass.
Acacia sieberiana, DMT, in the leaf
, DMT and NMT, in the leaf, stem and trunk bark, 0.81% DMT in bark, MMT
Acacia tortilis, DMT, NMT, and other tryptamines
Acacia vestita, Tryptamine, in the leaf and stem, but less than 0.02% total
Acacia victoriae, Tryptamines, 5-MeO-alkyltryptamine
List of Acacia Species Having Little or No Alkaloids in the Material Sampled:
(0% C 0.02%, Concentration of Alkaloids)
Albizia inundata leaves contain DMT.
Anadenanthera colubrina, Bufotenin, Beans, Bufotenin oxide, Beans
N,N-Dimethyltryptamine, Beans, pods,
Anadenanthera colubrina var. cebil - Bufotenin and Dimethyltryptamine have been
isolated from the seeds and seed pods, 5-MeO-DMT from the bark of the stems. The
seeds were found to contain 12.4% bufotenine, 0.06% 5-MeO-DMT and 0.06% DMT.
Plant,5-Methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine, Bark, 5-Methoxy-N-methyltryptamine,
Bark, Bufotenin, plant, beans, Bufotenin N-oxide,
Anadenanthera peregrina var. peregrina,
Bufotenine is in the seeds.
Desmanthus illinoensis, 0% - 0.34% DMT in root bark, highly variable. Also NMT,
N-hydroxy-N-methyltryptamine, 2-hydroxy-N-methyltryptamine, and gramine (toxic).
Desmanthus leptolobus, 0.14% DMT in root bark, more reliable than D. illinoensis
Desmodium caudatum(syn. Ohwia caudata ), Roots: 0.087% DMT,
Desmodium intortum, Bufotentine, DMT
Codariocalyx motorius(syn. Desmodium gyrans), DMT, 5-MEO-DMT, leaves, roots
Desmodium racemosum, 5-MEO-DMT
Desmodium triflorum, 0.0004% DMT-N-oxide, roots, less in stems and trace in
Lespedeza bicolor, DMT, 5-MEO-DMT in leaves and roots
Lespedeza bicolor var. japonica, DMT, 5-MEO-DMT in leaves and root bark
Mimosa ophthalmocentra, Dried root: DMT 1.6%, NMT 0.0012% and hordenine 0.0065%
Mimosa scabrella, Tryptamine, NMT, DMT and N-methyltetrahydrocarboline in bark
Mimosa somnians, Trytamines and MMT
mimosa hostilis: contains dmt and 5-meo-dmt
Mimosa tenuiflora(syn. "Mimosa hostilis"), 0.31-0.57% DMT (dry root
Mimosa verrucosa, DMT in root bark
Mucuna pruriens, "The leaves, seeds, stems and roots contain L-Dopa,
Serotonin, 5-HTP, and Nicotine, as well as N,N-DMT, Bufotenine, and
Petalostylis casseoides, 0.4-0.5% tryptamine, DMT, etc. in leaves and stems
Petalostylis labicheoides var. casseoides, DMT in leaves and stems
Phyllodium pulchellum(syn. Desmodium pulchellum), 0.2% 5-MeO-DMT, small
quantities of DMT (dominates in seedlings and young plants), 5-MEO-DMT
(dominates in mature plant), whole plant, roots, stems, leaves, flowers
Erythrina flabelliformis, other Erythrina species, seeds contain the alkaloids
Erysodin and Erysovin
Petalostylis cassioides: 0.4-0.5% tryptamine, DMT, etc. in leaves and stems
Petalostylis labicheoides, Tryptamines in leaves and stems, MAO's up to 0.5%
Nectandra megapotamica, NMT
Diplopterys cabrerana: DMT 0.17-1.74%, average of 0.47% DMT
Horsfieldia superba: 5-MeO-DMTand beta-carbolines
Iryanthera macrophylla: 5-MeO-DMT in bark
Iryanthera ulei: 5-MeO-DMT in bark
Osteophloem platyspermum: DMT, 5-MeO-DMT in bark
Virola calophylla, Leaves 0.149% DMT, leaves 0.006% MMT 5-MeO-DMT in bark
Virola callophylloidea, DMT
Virola carinata, DMT in leaves
Virola cuspidata, DMT
Virola divergens, DMT in leaves
Virola elongata(syn. Virola theiodora), DMT, 5-MEO-DMT in bark, roots, leaves
Virola melinonii, DMT in bark
Virola multinervia, DMT, 5-MEO-DMT in bark and roots
Virola pavonis, DMT in leaves
Virola peruviana, 5-MEO-DMT, traces of DMT and 5-MeO-tryptamine in bark
Virola rufula, Alkaloids in bark and root, 95% of which is MeO-DMT 0.190%
5-MeO-DMT in bark,[0.135% 5-MeO-DMT in root, 0.092% DMT in leaves.
Virola sebifera, The bark contains 0.065% to 0.25% alkaloids, most of which are
DMT and 5-MeO-DMT.
Virola surinamensis, DMT in bark
Virola venosa, DMT, 5-MEO-DMT in roots, leaves DMT
Testulea gabonensis: 0.2% 5-MeO-DMT, small quantities of DMT,[DMT in bark and
Genus Pandanus (Screw Pine): DMT in nuts
Poaceae (Gramineae) Some Graminae (grass) species contain gramine, which can
cause brain damage, other organ damage, central nervous system damage and death
Arundo donax, 0.0057% DMT in dried rhizome, no stem, 0.026% bufotenine, 0.0023%
Phalaris aquatica, 0.0007-0.18% Total alkaloids, 0.100% DMT,[0.022%
Phalaris arundinacea, 0.0004-0.121% Total alkaloids
Phalaris brachystachys, Aerial parts up to 3% total alkaloids, DMT present
Phragmites australis, DMT in roots.[ None of the above alkaloids are said to
have been found in Phalaris californica, Phalaris canariensis, Phalaris minor
and hybrids of P. arundinacea together with P. aquatica
Erigonum sp.: DMT
Punica granatum "DMT in root cortex;" The dried stem and root bark of
the tree contain about 0.4-0.9% alkaloids.
Psychotria carthagenensis, 0.2% average DMT in dried leaves
Psychotria expansa, DMT
Psychotria forsteriana, DMT
Psychotria insularum, DMT
Psychotria poeppigiana DMT
Psychotria rostrata, DMT
Psychotria rufipilis, DMT
Psychotria viridis, DMT 0.1-0.61% dried mass.
Dictyoloma incanescens, 5-MeO-DMT in leaves,0.04% 5-MeO-DMT in bark
Dutaillyea drupacea, > 0.4% 5-MeO-DMT in leaves
Dutaillyea oreophila, 5-MeO-DMT in leaves
Tetradium ruticarpum(syn. Evodia rutaecarpa), 5-MeO-DMT in leaves,fruit and
Limonia acidissima, 5-MeO-DMT in stems
Euodia leptococca (formerly Melicope), 0.2% total alkaloids, 0.07% 5-MeO-DMT;
5-MeO-DMT in leaves and stems, also "5-MeO-DMT-Oxide and a beta-carboline"
Pilocarpus organensis, 5-MeO-DMT in leaves
Vepris ampody, Up to 0.2% DMT in leaves and branches
Zanthoxylum arborescens, DMT in leaves
Zanthoxylum procerum, DMT in leaves
Urtica pilulifera: Bufotenin
you wish to buy real, high quality Phenethylamine containing seeds visit
the Ethno botanical Superstore by visiting the
dark biology store
Species, Alkaloid Content (Fresh) - Alkaloid Content (Dried)
Echinopsis lageniformis (syn. Trichocereus bridgesii), Mescaline >
0.025%,also 3,4-dimethoxyphenylethylamine < 1%, 3-methoxytyramine < 1%,
tyramine < 1% - Mescaline 2%
Echinopsis scopulicola (syn. Trichocereus scopulicola), Mescaline
(syn. Trichocereus pachanoi), Mescaline 0.006-0.12%, 0.05% Average - Mescaline
(syn. Trichocereus spachianus), Mescaline - Mescaline
(Peyote), 0.4% Mescaline- 3-6% Mescaline
Mescaline 0.01%, plus 4-hydroxy-3-5-dimethoxyphenethylamine
Austrocylindropuntia cylindrica (syn. Opuntia cylindrica), Mescaline
(syn. Opuntia echinocarpa), Mescaline 0.01%, 3-4-dimethoxyphenethylamine 0.01%,
Cylindropuntia spinosior (syn. Opuntia spinosior), Mescaline 0.00004%,
3-methoxytyramine 0.001%, tyramine 0.002%, 3-4-dimethoxyphenethylamine.
(syn. Trichocereus macrogonus), > 0.01-0.05% Mescaline
(syn. Trichocereus peruvianus), Mescaline 0.0005%-0.12% - Mescaline
Echinopsis tacaquirensis subsp. taquimbalensis (syn. Trichocereus taquimbalensis),
> 0.005-0.025% Mescaline
(syn. Trichocereus terscheckii, Trichocereus werdemannianus)> 0.005-0.025%
Mescaline - Mescaline 0.01%-2.375%
Echinopsis valida, 0.025% Mescaline
Pelecyphora aselliformis, Mescaline
you wish to buy real, high quality Beta carboline seeds visit the Ethno
botanical Superstore by visiting the
dark biology store
Beta-carbolines are "reversible" MAO-A
inhibitors. They are found in some plants used to make Ayahuasca. In high doses
the harmala alkaloids are somewhat hallucinogenic on their own. (Harmine =
Amsonia tabernaemontana, Harmine
Aspidosperma exalatum, Beta-carbolines
Aspidosperma polyneuron, Beta-carbolines
Apocynum cannabinum, Harmalol
Ochrosia nakaiana, Harman
Pleicarpa mutica, Beta-carbolines
Newbouldia laevis, Harman
Calycanthus occidentalis, Harmine
Hammada leptoclada, Tetrahydroharman, etc.
Kochia scoparia, Harmine, etc.
Guiera senegalensis, Harman, etc.
Carex brevicollis, Harmine, etc.
Carex parva, Beta-carbolines
Elaeagnus angustifolia, Harman, etc.
Elaeagnus commutata, Beta-carbolines
Elaeagnus hortensis, Tetrahydroharman, etc.
Elaeagnus orientalis, Tetrahydroharman
Elaeagnus spinosa, Tetrahydroharman
Hippophae rhamnoides, Harman, etc.
Shepherdia argentea, Tetrahydroharmol
Shepherdia canadensis, Tetrahydroharmol
Arundo donax, Tetrahydroharman
Festuca arundinacea, Harman, etc.
Lolium perenne, (Perennial Ryegrass), Harman, etc.
Phalaris aquatica, Beta-carbolines
Phalaris arundinacea, Beta-carbolines
Nectandra megapotamica, Beta-carbolines
Acacia baileyana, Tetrahydroharman
Acacia complanata, Tetrahydroharman, etc.
Burkea africana, Harman, etc.
Desmodium gangeticum, Beta-carbolines
Desmodium gyrans, Beta-carbolines
Desmodium pulchellum, Harman, etc.
Mucuna pruriens, 6-Methoxy-Harman
Petalostylis labicheoides, Tetrahydroharman; MAO's up to 0.5%
Prosopis nigra, Harman, etc.
Shepherdia pulchellum, Beta-carbolines
Strychnos melinoniana, Beta-carbolines
Strychnos usambarensis, Harman
Banisteriopsis argentia, 5-methoxytetrahydroharman,
Banisteriopsis caapi, Harmine 0.31-0.84%, tetrahydroharmine, telepathine,
dihydroshihunine,[ 5-MeO-DMT in bark
Banisteriopsis inebrians, Beta-carbolines
Banisteriopsis lutea, Harmine, telepathine
Banisteriopsis metallicolor, Harmine, telepathin
Banisteriopsis muricata, Harmine up to 6%, harmaline up to 4%, plus DMT
Diplopterys cabrerana, Beta-carbolines
Cabi pratensis, Beta-carbolines
Callaeum antifebrile(syn. Cabi paraensis), Harmine
Tetrapterys methystica(syn. Tetrapteris methystica), Harmine
Gymnacranthera paniculata, Beta-carbolines
Horsfieldia superba Beta-carbolines
Virola cuspidata, 6-Methoxy-Harman
Virola rufula, Beta-carbolines
Virola theiodora, Beta-carbolines
Testulea gabonensis, Beta-carbolines
Plectocomiopsis geminiflora, Beta-carbolines
Meconopsis horridula, Beta-carbolines
Meconopsis napaulensis, Beta-carbolines
Meconopsis paniculata, Beta-carbolines
Meconopsis robusta, Beta-carbolines
Meconopsis rudis, Beta-carbolines
Papaver rhoeas, Beta-carbolines
Passiflora actinia, Harman
Passiflora alata, Harman
Passiflora alba, Harman
Passiflora bryonoides, Harman
Passiflora caerulea, Harman
Passiflora capsularis, Harman
Passiflora decaisneana, Harman
Passiflora edulis, Harman, 0-7001 ppm in fruit
Passiflora eichleriana, Harman
Passiflora foetida, Harman
Passiflora incarnata (with bee), Harmine, Harmaline, Harman, etc. 0.03%.
Alkaloids in rind of fruit 0.25%
Passiflora quadrangularis, Harman
Passiflora ruberosa, Harman
Passiflora subpeltata, Harman
Passiflora warmingii, Harman
Calligonum minimum, Beta-carbolines
Leptactinia densiflora, Leptaflorine, etc.
Ophiorrhiza japonica, Harman
Pauridiantha callicarpoides, Harman
Pauridiantha dewevrei, Harman
Pauridiantha lyalli, Harman
Pauridiantha viridiflora, Harman
Simira klugei, Harman
Simira rubra, Harman
Borreria verticillata, Beta-carbolines
Leptactinia densiflora, Beta-carbolines
Nauclea diderrichii, Beta-carbolines
Ophiorrhiza japonica, Beta-carbolines
Pauridiantha callicarpoides, Beta-carbolines
Pauridiantha dewevrei, Beta-carbolines
Pauridiantha yalli, Beta-carbolines
Pauridiantha viridiflora, Beta-carbolines
Pavetta lanceolata, Beta-carbolines
Psychotria carthagenensis, Beta-carbolines
Psychotria viridis, Beta-carbolines
Simira klugei, Beta-carbolines
Simira rubra, Beta-carbolines
Uncaria attenuata, Beta-carbolines
Uncaria canescens, Beta-carbolines
Uncaria orientalis, Beta-carbolines
Tetradium (syn. Evodia) species: Some contain carbolines
Euodia leptococca Beta-carboline
Araliopsis tabouensis, Beta-carbolines
Flindersia laevicarpa, Beta-carbolines
Xanthoxylum rhetsa, Beta-carbolines
Chrysophyllum lacourtianum, Norharman etc.
Ailanthus malabarica, Beta-carbolines.See also Nag Champa.
Perriera madagascariensis, Beta-carbolines
Picrasma ailanthoides, Beta-carbolines
Picrasma crenata, Beta-carbolines
Picrasma excelsa, Beta-carbolines
Picrasma javanica, Beta-carbolines
Vestia foetida, (Syn V. lycioides) Beta-carbolines
Symplocos racemosa, Harman
Grewia mollis, Beta-carbolines
Fagonia cretica, Harman
Nitraria schoberi, Beta-carbolines
Peganum harmala, (Syrian Rue), The seeds contain about 2-6% alkaloids, most of
which is harmaline.Peganum harmala is also an abortifacient.
Peganum nigellastrum, Harmine
Tribulus terrestris, Harman
Zygophyllum fabago, Harman, harmine
you wish to buy real, high quality Salvia divinorum seeds visit the Ethno
botanical Superstore by visiting the dark biology
Salvia divinorum (also known as Diviner's Sage, Ska María Pastora,Seer's
Sage,and by its genus name Salvia is a psychoactive plant which can induce
dissociative effects and is a potent producer of "visions" and other
hallucinatory experiences. Its native habitat is within cloud forest in the
isolated Sierra Mazateca of Oaxaca, Mexico, where it grows in shady and moist
locations. The plant grows to over a meter high, has hollow square stems, large
leaves, and occasional white flowers with violet calyxes. Botanists have not
determined whether Salvia divinorum is a cultigen or a hybrid; native plants
reproduce vegetatively, rarely producing viable seed.
Mazatec shamans have a long and continuous tradition of religious use of Salvia
divinorum, using it to facilitate visionary states of consciousness during
spiritual healing sessions.] Most of the plant's local common names allude to
the Mazatec belief that the plant is an incarnation of the Virgin Mary, with its
ritual use also invoking that relationship. Its chief active psychoactive
constituent is a structurally unique diterpenoid called salvinorin A, a potent
?-opioid and D2 receptor agonist. Salvia divinorum is generally understood to be
of low toxicity (high LD50) and low addictive potential since it is a ?-opioid
Salvia divinorum remains legal in most countries and, within the United States,
is legal in the majority of states. However, some have called for its
prohibition. While not currently regulated by US federal drug laws, several
states have passed laws criminalizing the substance. Some proposed state bills
have failed to progress and have not been made into law (with motions having
been voted down or otherwise dying in committee stages). There have not been
many publicized prosecutions of individuals violating anti-salvia laws in the
few countries and states in which it has been made illegal.
Salvia divinorum has become both increasingly well-known and available in modern
culture. The Internet has allowed for the growth of many businesses selling live
salvia plants, dried leaves, extracts, and other preparations.
Medical experts, as well as accident and emergency rooms, have not been
reporting cases that suggest particular salvia-related health concerns, and
police have not been reporting it as a significant issue with regard to public
order offences; in any case, Salvia divinorum has attracted negative attention
from the media and some lawmakers.
Media stories generally raise alarms over Salvia divinorum's legal status and
are sometimes headlined with generally ill-supported comparisons to LSD or other
psychoactive substances. Parental concerns are raised by focusing on salvia's
usage by younger teens—the emergence of YouTube videos purporting to depict
its use being an area of particular concern in this respect. The isolated and
controversial suicide of Brett child star received much media attention.
Salvia divinorum was the subject of the first use of YouTube within
drug-behavioral research when scientists at San Diego State University rated
randomly selected videos of salvia users to study observed impairment. Their
findings corroborate reports that the most profound effects of smoking salvia
appear almost immediately and last about eight minutes. Effects include
temporary speech and coordination loss.
Flowering Salvia divinorum
Salvia divinorum has large green ovate (oftentimes also dentate) leaves, with a
yellow undertone that reach 10 to 30 cm (4 to 12 in) long. The leaves have no
hairs on either surface, and little or no petiole. The plant grows to well over
1 meter (3 ft) in height, on hollow square stems which tend to break or trail on
the ground, with the plant rooting quite readily at the nodes and internodes.
The flowers, which bloom only rarely, grow in whorls on a 30-centimetre (12 in)
inflorescence, with about six flowers to each whorl. The 3-centimetre (1.2 in)
flowers are white, curved and covered with hairs, and held in a small violet
calyx that is covered in hairs and glands. When it does bloom in its native
habitat, it does so from September to May.
Early authors erred in describing the flowers as having blue corollas, based on
Epling and Játiva's description. The first plant material they received was
dried, so they based the flower color on an erroneous description by Hofmann and
Wasson, who didn't realize that their "blue flowers, crowned with a white
dome" were in fact violet calyces with unopened white corollas.
Salvia divinorum produces few viable seeds even when it does flower—no seeds
have ever been observed on plants in the wild. For an unknown reason, pollen
fertility is also comparatively reduced. There is no active pollen tube
inhibition within the style, but some event or process after the pollen tube
reaches the ovary is aberrant. The likeliest explanations are inbreeding
depression or hybridity. All of the Mazatec populations appear to be clonal. The
plant's square stems break easily and tend to trail on the ground, rooting
easily at the nodes and internodes.
Three Salvia divinorum plants
There are two commonly cultivated strains which are known to be distinct. One is
the strain that was collected in 1962 by ecologist and psychologist Sterling
Bunnell (the Bunnell strain), colloquially mis-attributed as the Wasson-Hofmann
strain. The other was collected from Huautla de Jiménez in 1991 by
anthropologist Bret Blosser (the Blosser or Palatable strain). There are other
strains that are not as well documented, such as the Luna strain (possibly
Bunnell) isolated from a Hawaiian patch of Salvia divinorum clones, featuring
unusually serrated and rounded rather than ovate leaves.
Propagation by cuttings
Salvia divinorum is usually propagated through vegetative reproduction. Small
cuttings, between two and eight inches long, cut off of the mother plant just
below a node, will usually root in plain tap water within two or three weeks.
Blooms occur when the day length becomes shorter than 12 hours (beginning in
mid-October in some places), necessitating a shade cloth in urban environments
with exposure to light pollution (HPS).
The known active constituent of Salvia divinorum is a trans-neoclerodane
diterpenoid known as salvinorin A (chemical formula C23H28O8). This compound is
present in the dried plant at about 0.18%.
Salvinorin A is not an alkaloid, (meaning it does not contain a basic nitrogen),
unlike most known opioid receptor ligands. Salvinorin A is the first documented
Similar to many psychoactive herbs, Salvia divinorum synthesizes and excretes
its active constituent (salvinorin A) via trichomes, of the peltate-glandular
morphology, located just beneath the cuticle (subcuticular) layer.
By mass, salvinorin A "is the most potent naturally occurring hallucinogen.
"It is active at doses as low as 200?µg. Synthetic chemicals, such as LSD
(active at 20–30 µg doses), can be more potent. Research has shown that
salvinorin A is a potent and selective ?-Opioid (kappa-Opioid) receptor agonist.
It has been reported that the effects of salvinorin A in mice are blocked by ?-Opioid
receptor antagonists. However, it is an even more potent D2 receptor partial
agonist, and it is likely this action plays a significant role in its effects as
well. Salvinorin A has no actions at the 5-HT2A serotonin receptor, the
principal molecular target responsible for the actions of 'classic'
hallucinogens, such as mescaline and LSD, nor is it known to have affinity for
any other sites to date.
Salvinorin's potency should not be confused with toxicity. Rodents chronically
exposed to dosages many times greater than those to which humans are exposed
show no signs of organ damage.
Other terpenoids have been isolated from Salvia divinorum, including other
salvinorins and related compounds named divinatorins and salvinicins. None of
these compounds has shown significant (sub-micromolar) affinity at the ?-Opioid
receptor, and there is no evidence that they contribute to the plant's
Other pharmaceutical action
Salvinorin A is capable of inhibiting excess intestinal motility (e.g.
diarrhea), through a combination of ?-opioid and cannabinoid (mainly CB1
receptor) receptors in inflamed but not normal gut in vivo. The mechanism of
action for Salvinorin A on leaf tissue has been described as 'prejunctional', as
it was able to modify electrically induced contractions, but not those of
exogenous acetylcholine. Results from a small study by an assistant professor at
the University of Iowa indicate that it may have potential as an analgesic and
as a therapeutic tool for treating drug addictions.
A pharmacologically important aspect of the contraction-reducing (antispasmodic)
properties of ingested Salvinorin A on gut tissue is that it is only
pharmacologically active on inflamed and not normal tissue, thus reducing
There are a few ways to consume Salvia divinorum. In traditional Mazatec ritual,
shamans use only fresh Salvia divinorum leaves. Modern methods have been
developed to more effectively absorb the active principle, salvinorin A. If
enough salvinorin A is absorbed, an altered state of consciousness can occur.
The duration of experience varies with the method of ingestion and the amount of
salvinorin A absorbed.
Mazatec shamans crush the leaves to extract leaf juices from about 20 to 80
(about 50g/2 oz to 200g/7 oz.) or more fresh leaves. They usually mix these
juices with water to create an infusion or 'tea' which they drink to induce
visions in ritual healing ceremonies.
Chewing and swallowing a large number of fresh leaves is the other Mazatec
method. Oral consumption of the leaf makes the effects come on more slowly, over
a period of 10 to 20 minutes. The experience, from the onset of effects, lasts
from about 30 minutes up to one and a half hours.
Doses for chewing vastly exceed doses used for smoking. By calculating the
concentrations per leaf ("an average concentration of 2.45 mg per
gram" of leaf, the average weight per leaf ("about 50 g" per 20
leaves, or 2.5g/leaf, and the standard dose for chewing (about 8-28 leaves),
the doses can range from about 50 mg to 172 mg.
1/2 g. of 25x S. divinorum extract.
Salvia divinorum is becoming more widely known and used in modern culture. The
National Survey on Drug Use and Health, an annual US based survey sponsored by
the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), for 2006
estimated that about 1.8 million persons aged 12 or older had used Salvia
divinorum in their lifetime, of which approximately 750,000 had done so in that
year. The following year, 2007, saw the annual figure rise from 750,000 to 1
million US users.
Modern methods of ingestion include smoking or chewing the leaf, or using a
tincture, as described in the following sections.
Dry leaves can be smoked in a pipe, but most users prefer the use of a water
pipe to cool the smoke. The temperature required to release salvinorin from the
plant material is quite high (about 240°C). A cooler flame will work, but the
direct application of a more intense flame, such as that of a torch lighter, is
Some find that untreated dry leaf produces unnoticeable or only light effects.
Concentrated preparations or extracts which may be smoked in place of untreated
leaves, have become widely available. This enhanced (or "fortified")
leaf is described by a number followed by an x (e.g. 5x, 10x), the
multiplicative factors being generally indicative of the relative amounts of
leaf concentrate, though there is no accepted standard for these claims. Other
sources may use a system of color codes to form their own standards of potency;
for example, "green", "yellow", and "red."
These grades of potency may be roughly indicative of the relative concentration
of the active principle, (salvinorin A), but the measure should not be taken as
absolute. Overall extract potency will depend on the (naturally varying)
strength of the untreated leaf used in preparing the extract, as well as the
efficiency of the extraction process itself. Extracts reduce the overall amount
of inhalations needed to ingest a given amount of active principle, thus
facilitating more powerful experiences.
If salvia is smoked, then the main effects are experienced quickly. The most
intense 'peak' is reached within a minute or so and lasts for 1–5 minutes,
followed by a gradual tapering off. At 5–10 minutes, less intense yet still
noticeable effects typically persist, giving way to a returning sense of the
everyday and familiar until back to baseline after about 15 to 20 minutes.
The traditional method of chewing the leaves has continued in modern use.
However, salvinorin A is generally considered to be inactive when orally
ingested, as salvinorin A is effectively deactivated by the gastrointestinal
system. Therefore, in what's understood to be a modern innovation, the 'quid' of
leaves is held in the mouth as long as possible in order to facilitate
absorption of the active constituents through the oral mucosa. 'Quid' refers to
the fact that at the end of this method the user spits out the leaves rather
than swallowing them because ingesting the leaves has no known effect. Chewing
consumes more of the plant than smoking, and produces a longer-lasting
Using a tincture
Less commonly, some may ingest salvia in the form of a tincture. This is
administered sublingually, usually with the aid of a glass dropper. It may be
taken diluted with water just before use, which may slightly reduce the
intensity of its effects, but can also serve to lessen or avoid a stinging
sensation in the mouth caused by the presence of alcohol. Tinctures vary in
potency, and the effects can range from inducing a mild meditative state to
bringing about a more intense visionary one.
When taken as a tincture the effects and duration are similar to other methods
of oral ingestion, though they may be significantly more intense, depending on
Psychedelic experiences are necessarily somewhat subjective and variations in
reported effects are to be expected. Aside from individual reported experiences
there has been a limited amount of published work summarizing the effects. D.M.
Turner's book Salvinorin—The Psychedelic Essence of Salvia Divinorum quotes
Daniel Siebert's summarization, mentioning that the effects may include:
Past memories, such as revisiting places from childhood memory
Sensations of motion, or being pulled or twisted by forces
Visions of membranes, films and various two-dimensional surfaces
Merging with or becoming objects
Overlapping realities, such as the perception of being in several locations at
There also may be synesthetic experiences.Glossolalia (speaking in tongues) has
been reported by Reason.
A survey of salvia users found that 38% described the effects as unique in
comparison to other methods of altering consciousness. 23% said the effects were
like yoga, meditation or trance.
One firsthand journalistic account has been published in the UK science magazine
New Scientist (note: the dose for this experience was not reported):
The salvia took me on a consciousness-expanding journey unlike any other I have
ever experienced. My body felt disconnected from 'me' and objects and people
appeared cartoonish, surreal and marvelous. Then, as suddenly as it had began,
it was over. The visions vanished and I was back in my bedroom. I spoke to my
'sitter'—the friend who was watching over me, as recommended on the packaging—but
my mouth was awkward and clumsy. When I attempted to stand my coordination was
off. Within a couple of minutes, however, I was fine and clear-headed, though
dripping with sweat. The whole experience had lasted less than 5 minutes.
—Gaia 2006-09-29 (UK Media)
There have been few books published on the subject. One notable example is Dale
Pendell's work "Pharmako/Poeia—Plants Powers, Poisons, and Herbcraft",
which won the 1996 Firecracker Alternative Book Award and has a chapter
dedicated to Salvia divinorum. It includes some experience accounts:
It's very intense, I call it a reality stutter, or a reality strobing. I think
that having been a test pilot, and flying in that unforgiving environment with
only two feet between our wingtips, helped to prepare me for this kind of
Other users have written extensive prose and/or poetry about their
experiences;some describe their visions pictorially, and there exist examples of
visionary art which are 'salvia-inspired'. Others claim musical inspiration from
the plant: including "Salvia divinorum" by 1200 Micrograms,
"Salvia" by Deepwater Sunshine, and "Flight 77" by Paul
Dale Pendell expresses some concerns about the use of highly concentrated forms
of salvia. In its natural form salvia is more balanced and benevolent, and quite
strong enough, he argues. High strength extracts on the other hand can show
"a more precipitous, and more terrifying, face" and many who try it
this way may never wish to repeat the experience.
The Salvia Divinorum User's Guide recommends having a trip sitter present to
those who are new to salvia, are experimenting with a stronger form, or are
using a more effective method of ingestion.
The guide says that while the effects of salvia are generally quite different
from those of alcohol, like alcohol, it impairs coordination. It also emphasizes
that salvia is not a 'party drug.'
Salvia is not 'fun' in the way that alcohol or cannabis can be. If you try to
party with salvia you probably will not have a good experience. Salvia is a
consciousness-changing herb that can be used in a vision quest, or in a healing
ritual. In the right setting, salvia makes it possible to see visions. It is an
herb with a long tradition of sacred use. It is useful for deep meditation. It
is best taken in a quiet, nearly dark room; either alone, or with one or two
good friends present.
Salvia divinorum User's Guide
Daniel Siebert cautions that inhaling hot air can be irritating and potentially
damaging to the lungs. Vapor produced by a heat gun needs to be cooled by
running it through a water pipe or cooling chamber before inhalation.
The vaporizers that have been reported effective for use with dried S. divinorum
leaves are those that use a paint stripper “heat gun” as the heat source.
These get very hot, and people have reported that they work quite well sometimes
too well—for smoking dried S. divinorum leaves; we have heard of several
people using this type of vaporizer who had experiences that were too intense,
including one report of someone passing out. Measuring an accurate dose with
these devices can be quite tricky, and they are not recommended.
—Salvia Divinorum and Salvinorin A, Second Edition, p41
An experienced salvia user who is chewing a quid, may often choose to do it
alone, and may be quite safe in doing so. But having a pleasant, sensible, sober
sitter is an absolute must if you are trying vaporization, smoking high doses of
extract-enhanced leaves, or using pure salvinorin.
—Salvia divinorum User's Guide
After the peak effects, normal awareness-of-self and the immediate surroundings
return but lingering effects may be felt. These short-term lingering effects
have a completely different character than the peak experience. About half of
users report a pleasing 'afterglow', or pleasant state of mind following the
main effects. Researchers from the University of California and California
Pacific Medical Center Research Institute conducted a survey of 500 salvia users
which identified that they 'sometimes or often' experience certain effects,
Increased insight: 47% Decreased insight: 1.8%
Improved mood: 44.8% Worsened mood: 4.0%
Increased connection with Universe or Nature: 39.8% Decreased connection with
Universe or Nature: 5.4%
Increased sweating: 28.2% Decreased sweating: 1.6%
Body felt warm or hot: 25.2% Body felt cold: 6.4%
Increased self-confidence: 21.6% Decreased self-confidence: 2.4%
Improved concentration: 19.4% Difficulty concentrating: 12.0%
Other commonly reported effects include:
Feelings of calmness: 42.2%
Weird thoughts: 36.4%
Things seeming unreal: 32.4%
Floating feelings: 32%
Mind racing: 23.2%
Feeling lightheaded: 22.2%
Differing studies suggest no overall consensus so far with regard to the
long-term effects of Salvia divinorum on mood. It is well-established that some
k-opioid agonists can cause dysphoria in humans, and research using rats in
forced-swim tests has been used to suggest that Salvia divinorum may have
"depressive-like" effects. However, a report has been published
detailing an individual case of Salvia divinorum use as self-medicated treatment
for depression, and Baggott's survey of 500 people with firsthand experience of
salvia found that 25.8% of respondents reported improved mood and
"antidepressant-like effects" lasting 24 hours or longer. Only 4.4%
reported persisting (24 hours or more) negative effects (most often anxiety) on
at least one occasion.
There has been one report of salvia precipitating psychosis. However, the
authors suspected that their patient was already genetically predisposed to
It has been suggested that the long-term effects of salvia use may include
feelings of déjà vu.
The Baggott survey found little evidence of addictive potential (chemical
dependence) in its survey population. 0.6% percent of respondents reported
feeling addicted to or dependent on salvia at some point, and 1.2% reported
strong cravings. About this the researchers said "there were too few of
these individuals to interpret their reports with any confidence".
Most users report no hangover or negative after-effects (e.g. withdrawal,
comedown or rebound effect) the next day. This is consistent with the apparent
low toxicity of salvia indicated by research conducted at the University of
Aside from individual reports of self-medicated use in the treatment of
depression, research suggests that Salvia divinorum, in line with the studied
effects of other ?-opioid agonists, may have further therapeutic potential.
Thomas Prisinzano, assistant professor of medicinal and natural products
chemistry at the University of Iowa, has suggested that salvia may help treat
You can give a rat free access to cocaine, give them free access to Salvinorin
A, and they stop taking cocaine.
—Masis 2007-02-28 (US Media)
Professor Bryan L. Roth, director of the National Institute on Mental Health's
Psychoactive Drug Screening Program, has said:
We think that drugs derived from the active ingredient could be useful for a
range of diseases: Alzheimer's, depression, schizophrenia, chronic pain and even
AIDS or HIV.
—Viren 2007-08-23 (US Media)
Clinical pharmacologist John Mendelsohn has also said:
There may be some derivatives that could be made that would actually be active
against cancer and HIV [...] At the present time, there are a lot of therapeutic
targets that have many people excited.
An ABC news story which reported on this went on to suggest "the excitement
could vanish overnight if the federal government criminalized the sale or
possession of salvia, as the Drug Enforcement Agency is considering doing right
now." A proposed Schedule I classification would mean (among other
things) that there's no "currently accepted medical use" as far as the
United States government is concerned. Scientists worry that such
legislation would restrict further work Mendelsohn said scheduling salvia could
scare away a great deal of research and development into salvia's therapeutic
you wish to buy real, high quality Kanna seeds visit the Ethno botanical
Superstore by visiting the dark
South Africans have sought this plant for centuries for its mood-enhancing
African Bushmen have been chewing kanna (Sceletium tortuosum) for hundreds of
years to reduce stress, relieve hunger and elevate their moods.
plant is traditionally chewed, smoked or made into a tea. When it is consumed,
users are said to receive a head rush similar to the effect of smoking
cigarette, but without the risk of chemical addiction or health concerns.
At intoxicating levels, kanna taken alone can cause euphoria and
also claim increased
personal insight, as well as a grounded feeling without any perceptual dulling.
from its potential health benefits and mood-altering qualities, the plant is
also well known for its ability to enhance the effects of other psychoactive
particularly cannabis. Sceletium has
been reported to cause elevated mood and
decreases anxiety, stress and tension. It
has also been used as
appetite suppressant by
shepherds walking long distances in arid areas. In intoxicating doses,
it can cause euphoria,
initially with stimulation and later
Having such properties Sceletium is
classified as an empathogen type
herb. High doses have
been shown to produce distinct inebriation
stimulation often followed by sedation. The plant is not hallucinogenic,
contrary to some literature on the subject, and no adverse effects
Kanna is considered by many to potentiate (enhance the effects) of other
psychoactive herbal material, such as cannabis.
is best planted in Spring/Summer and harvested in mid-Autumn. It can be
used as a herbal smoke, pill or one can chew the leaves to feel its
It can be harvested whether or not the flow
you wish to buy real, high quality peyote visit the Ethno botanical
Superstore by visiting the dark
The various species of the genus Lophophora grow low to the ground and they
often form groups with numerous, crowded shoots. The blue-green, yellow-green or
sometimes reddish green shoots are mostly flattened spheres with sunken shoot
tips. They can reach heights of from 2 to 7 centimeters (0.79 to 2.8 in) and
diameters of 4 to 12 centimeters (1.6 to 4.7 in). There are often significant,
vertical ribs consisting of low and rounded or hump-like bumps. From the
cuspareoles arises a tuft of soft, yellowish or whitish woolly hairs. Spines are
absent. Flowers are pink or white to slightly yellowish, sometimes reddish. They
open during the day, are from 1 to 2.4 centimeters long, and reach a diameter
from 1 to 2.2 centimeters.
The cactus produces flowers sporadically; these are followed by small edible
pink fruit. The club-shaped to elongated, fleshy fruits are bare and more or
less rosy colored. At maturity, they are brownish-white and dry. The fruits do
not burst open on their own and they are between 1.5 and 2 centimeters long.
They contain black, pear-shaped seeds that are 1 to 1.5 mm long and 1 mm wide.
The seeds require hot and humid conditions to germinate. Peyote contains a large
spectrum ofphenethylamine alkaloids. The principal one is mescaline. The
mescaline content of Lophophora williamsii is about 0.4% fresh (undried) and
3-6% dried. Peyote is extremely slow growing. Cultivated specimens grow
considerably faster, sometimes taking less than three years to go from seedling
to mature flowering adult. More rapid growth can be achieved by grafting peyote
onto mature San Pedroroot stock.
The top of the cactus that grows above ground, also referred to as the crown,
consists of disc-shaped buttons that are cut above the roots and sometimes
dried. When done properly, the top of the root will form a callus and the root
will not rot.. When poor harvesting techniques are used, however, the entire
plant dies. Currently in South Texas, peyote grows naturally but has been
over-harvested, to the point that the state has listed it as an endangered
species. The buttons are generally chewed, or boiled in water to
produce a psychoactive tea. Peyote is extremely bitter and most people are
nauseated before they feel the onset of the psychoactive effects.
Common doses for pure mescaline range from roughly 200 to 400mg. This translates
to a dose of roughly 10 to 20g of dried buttons of average potency; however,
potency varies considerably between samples, making it difficult to measure
doses accurately without first extracting the mescaline. The effects last about
10 to 12 hours. Peyote is reported to trigger states of "deep introspection
and insight" that have been described as being of a metaphysical or
spiritual nature. At times, these can be accompanied by rich visual or auditory
In addition to psychoactive use, some Native American tribes use the plant for
its curative properties. They employ peyote to treat such varied ailments as
toothache, pain in childbirth, fever, breast pain, skin diseases, rheumatism,
diabetes, colds, and blindness. The US Dispensatory lists peyote under the name
Anhalonium, and states it can be used in various preparations for neurasthenia,
hysteria and asthma. Screening for antimicrobial activity of peyote extracts in
various solvents showed positive microbial inhibition. The principal antibiotic
agent, a water-soluble crystalline substance separated from an ethanol extract
of the plant, was given the namepeyocactin. It is now called hordenine. within
60 hours after infection. Peyocactin proved effective against 18 strains of
penicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, several other bacteria, and a
A 2005 paper published in Biological Psychiatry found that "...compared to
Navajos with minimal substance use, the peyote group showed no significant
deficits on the Rand Mental Health Inventory(RMHI) or any neuropsychological
measures...", and that they scored significantly better than non-users on
the "general positive affect" and "psychological well-being"
measures of the RMHI, a standard instrument used to diagnose psychological
problems and determine overall mental health. By contrast, alcohol abusers did
significantly worse than the control group (non-users) in all measures of the
In 2005 researchers used radiocarbon dating and alkaloid analysis to study two
specimens of peyote buttons found in archaeological digs from a site called
Shumla Cave No. 5 on the Rio Grande in Texas. The results dated the specimens to
between 3780 and 3660 B.C. Alkaloid extraction yielded approximately 2% of the
alkaloids including mescaline in both samples. This indicates that native North
Americans were likely to have used peyote since at least five and a half
thousand years ago. Specimens from a burial cave in west central Coahuila,
Mexico have been similarly analyzed and dated to 810 to 1070 AD .
Peyote in Wirikuta, Mexico
From earliest recorded time, peyote has been used by indigenous peoples, such as
the Huichol of northern Mexico and by various Native American tribes, native to
or relocated to the Southern Plains states of present-day Oklahoma and Texas.
Its usage was also recorded among various Southwestern Athabaskan-language
tribal groups. The Tonkawa, the Mescalero and Lipan Apache were the source or
first practitioners of peyote religion in the regions north of present-day
Mexico. They were also the principal group to introduce peyote to newly arrived
migrants, such as the Comanche and Kiowafrom the Northern Plains. The religious,
ceremonial, and healing uses of peyote may date back over 2,000 years.
while working as a night watchman at a psychiatric ward, was peyote-inspired to
write his novel, One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest. "'Peyote... inspired my
chief narrator, because it was after choking down eight of the little cactus
plants that I wrote the first three pages.' (As quoted in John Clark Pratt's
"Introduction to One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest", The Viking Critical
Library, ed. John Clark Pratt, expanded edition, 1996)."
• Michael McClure wrote "Peyote Poem" after experimenting with
peyote and other psychedelic drugs.
• Allen Ginsberg's poem, "Howl", was partly inspired by his use of
peyote on October 17, 1954 in his apartment at 755 Pine Street in San Francisco,
when he had a vision of the Sir Francis Drake Hotel and the Medical Arts
buildings being transformed into the ancient Phoenician god Moloch.
• In the 1970s, the early writings of Carlos Castaneda sparked a resurgence of
interest in using peyote as a psychoactive drug.
you wish to buy real, high quality morning glory seeds visit the Ethno
botanical Superstore by visiting the
dark biology store
The seeds of many species of morning glory contain ergoline alkaloids such
as the psychedelic ergonovine andergine (LSA). Seeds
of Ipomoea tricolor and Turbina corymbosa (syn. R.
corymbosa) are used as psychedelics. The seeds of morning glory can produce
a similar effect to LSD when taken in large doses, often numbering
into the hundreds. Though the chemical LSA is not legal in some countries, the
seeds are found in many gardening stores; however, the seeds from commercial
sources are often coated in some form of pesticide or methylmercury. These
coatings are especially dangerous if one has a history of liver disorders and
may also cause neural damage.
Blue morning glories
Morning glory vine climbing
you wish to buy real, high quality Hawaiian baby woodrose seeds visit
the Ethno botanical Superstore by visiting the
dark biology store
Argyreia nervosa is a perennial climbing vine that is native to the Indian subcontinent and introduced to numerous areas worldwide, including Hawaii,
Africa and the Caribbean. Though it can be invasive, it is often prized for its aesthetic value. Common names include
Hawaiian Baby Woodrose, Adhoguda अधोगुडा or Vidhara विधारा (Sanskrit), Elephant Creeper and Woolly Morning Glory.
Hawaiian Baby Woodrose seeds may be consumed for their various ergoline alkaloids, such as lysergic acid amide, ergine, which
can produce psychedelic effects. Ergine is found in the seeds at a concentration of around 0.13% of dry weight.
The plant is a rare example of a plant whose hallucinogenic properties were not recognized until recent times.
While its cousins in the Convolvulaceae family, such as the Rivea corymbosa (Ololiuhqui) and Ipomoea tricolor (Tlitliltzin),
were used in shamanic rituals of Latin America for centuries, the Hawaiian Baby Woodrose was not traditionally recognized as a hallucinogen.
Its properties were first brought to attention in the 1960s, despite the fact that the chemical composition of its seeds is nearly identical to those of the two
species mentioned above, and the seeds contain the highest concentration of psychoactive compounds in the entire family.
In most countries it is legal to purchase, sell or germinate Argyreia nervosa seeds, but they are generally unapproved for human consumption.
Depending on the country, it may be illegal to buy seeds with the intention to consume them, and several countries have outlawed ergine-containing
seeds altogether. In Australia, if the seeds are first treated to discourage use, then there are no restrictions on trade.
Extracting ergine from Argyreia speciosa seeds is illegal in the USA, since it is a scheduled substance. It is classified as a schedule III depressant by
the DEA, although the substance has hallucinogenic/psychedelic properties.